Although American hophornbeam's fall color is not sensational, it helps to "soften" the autumn landscape. Beech vs. Hornbeam Posted on 14th October 2013 (16th March 2018) by HedgesDirect The differences between two of the most popular hedging plants – Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Hornbeam … The European hornbeam has densely textured foliage and handsome, slate-gray smooth to fluted bark. It has branches that start very low to the ground and it grows to be tall and skinny. Hornbeams yield a very hard timber, giving rise to the name "ironwood". It was introduced into North America during colonial times. Tolerates dry, shady sites. THERE ARE TWO members of the birch family that often go unnoticed in the understory of our forests: the Eastern hop hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) and American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana). Just remember, your tree is miniature and will need a much smaller and more gentile dose of treatment. The European hornbeam is native to Europe eastward to central Asia. Pyramidal European Hornbeam will grow to be about 40 feet tall at maturity, with a spread of 25 feet. – Bulk pricing discounts available – For the most accurate availability and pricing call us today Its relatively fine texture sets it apart from other landscape plants with less refined foliage. American hornbeam is more difficult to transplant than European hornbeam. As nouns the difference between hornbeam and hophornbeam is that hornbeam is a tree of the genus carpinus , having a smooth gray bark and a ridged trunk, the wood being white and very hard, common along the banks of streams in the united states while hophornbeam is any species of the genus ostrya , with exceptionally dense wood. Pale yellowish brown heartwood isn’t clearly demarcated from sapwood. For general carpentry, hornbeam is rarely used, partly due to the difficulty of working it. VCE Publications & Other Online Resources, https://www.mortonarb.org/trees-plants/tree-plant-descriptions/american-hornbeam, https://www.omaha.com/eedition/sunrise/articles/american-hornbeams-show-the-upsides-to-planting-native-trees/article_b6dbad4f-3daf-5372-a38c-39865a9db99f.html, http://treebaltimore.org/tree-of-the-season-american-hornbeam/#.Xh0wFoh7nX4, http://www.indefenseofplants.com/blog/2019/12/11/the-sinewy-american-hornbeam?rq=hornbeam, https://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?kempercode=h540, https://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=OSVI, https://www.uky.edu/hort/American-Hornbeam, https://campus.albion.edu/stowell-arboretum/musclewood-or-ironwood/, https://selectree.calpoly.edu/tree-detail/carpinus-betulus, https://www.woodlandtrust.org.uk/trees-woods-and-wildlife/british-trees/a-z-of-british-trees/hornbeam/, https://www.chicagobotanic.org/plantinfo/pp/j, https://www.illinoiswildflowers.info/trees/plants/hop_hornbeam.htm. It has a low canopy with a typical clearance of 3 feet from the ground, and should not be planted underneath power lines. Eastern hop hornbeam, American Hop-hornbeam, Hop hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood, Ironwood Hornbeam Tree . Hop Hornbeam… I have learned my trees (in Illinois and North Carolina) and we refer to Hornbeam- Carpinus caroliniana as “Musclewood”, and Hop Hornbeam- Ostrya virginiana as “Ironwood”. Difficult to transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots. Uses The wood of hop hornbeam is hard and durable. Dr M in full flow talking to the trees! The foliage will be a dark green and then turn yellow in the fall. Introduction: American hophornbeam is a small understory tree of well-drained, deciduous forests that thrives on neglect.It is the upland equivalent to hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana). Though some botanists[according to whom?] Frans Fontaine Hornbeam is a dense deciduous tree with a narrowly upright and columnar growth habit. This is a relatively low maintenance tree, and is best pruned in late winter once the threat of … American Hornbeam Musclewood. Hornbeam or blue-beech is a common tree in our forests, and it also appears in many parks and gardens. The wood was used to make wooden screws. [citation needed]. American Hornbeam Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. Carpinus caroliniana American Hornbeam 20′ – 30′ deciduous tree. The European hornbeam, particularly the cultivar ‘Fastigiata’, is often found in U.S landscapes. American hornbeam trees reach a height and width of 20 to 30 feet. Both This fastigiate form was introduced in 1883. Ovate, sharply-toothed, dark green leaves (to 5” long) are clean and attractive throughout the growing season with little susceptibility to foliar diseases. It should be transplanted balled-and- burlapped in the spring. The wood can also be used as gear pegs in simple machines, including traditional windmills. American Hornbeam or Musclewood is a shade tolerant, mid size deciduous tree. The hard wood of American hornbeam is used to make golf clubs, tool handles and mallets. When allowed to go where they will, American hornbeam grows into a variety of unconventional form, with twists and multiple trunks that can be quite lovely. European Hornbeam is a small to medium-size tree reaching heights of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft), rarely 30 metres (98 ft), and often has a fluted and crooked trunk. Native. [1][3][4][5][6] Carpinus betulus can be found in Europe, Turkey and Ukraine. The American Hornbeam (Carpinus carolina) is similiar to its European cousin. Color/Appearance: Hornbeam’s sapwood is very thick, with most boards and lumber being comprised entirely of sapwood. In hornbeam. The shape of the wing is important in the identification of different hornbeam species. [7], Hornbeams are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including autumnal moth, common emerald, feathered thorn, walnut sphinx, Svensson's copper underwing, and winter moth (recorded on European hornbeam) as well as the Coleophora case-bearers C. currucipennella and C. The European species is more adaptable to more landscapes than the American species. Leaves are simple, alternate, 2–5 inches long, 1–2 inches wide, with upper surface bluish green, dull; undersurface paler, mostly smooth, or with hairs in vein axils only, margins with small sharp teeth. Hornbeam has alternate simple leaves, with fine teeth and tapering to a sharp point. The American hornbeam is also occasionally known as blue-beech, ironwood, or musclewood, the first from the resemblance of the bark to that of the American beech Fagus grandifolia, the other two from the hardness of the wood and the muscled appearance of the trunk and limbs. Seems pretty uniform across the board with the other arborists in my field that I’ve come encountered. American Hornbeam naturally occurs in forests as an understory tree which makes it perfect for a woodland edge or shady side of the house. Carpinus betulus commonly called European hornbeam is a medium-sized, deciduous tree that grows 40-60’ (less frequently to 80’) tall with a pyramidal to oval-rounded crown. American hornbeam is a tall shrub or small tree, to 35 feet tall, with pendulous branches and a gray trunk that is fluted into musclelike ridges. European Hornbeam holds its leaves for a month or so, and only holds juvenile leaves, so it can be tricky or impossible to achieve the same desirable retention as beech. Height – 30 to 50 feet (10 to 15 meters) Exposure – full sun Soil – ordinary Foliage – deciduous Flowering – spring. (image courtesy of Waheed Arshad).. Dr M is currently teaching British tree identification in his Vegetation Survey and Assessment module on the MSc Plant Diversity and MSc Species Identification and Survey Skills.. During a recent 2-hour walk in autumnal sunshine, the class collected twigs and leaves from no fewer than 27 genera. The common English name hornbeam derives from the hardness of the woods (likened to horn) and the Old English beam "tree" (cognate with Dutch ‘’Boom’’ and German Baum). A medium sized upright tree with uniform proportions with a rounded or flat-topped crown. I do have a comment regarding Hornbeam vs. If trained properly, this species can work well as part of a hedge. Plant in the spring. The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. It is also used in parquet flooring and for making chess pieces. Typically, 10–30 seeds are on each seed catkin. Hornbeam seeds, buds, and catkins are eaten by a number of songbirds as well as ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkey, and red a gray squirrels. A close relative of our tree, the European hornbeam, has been a classic landscape tree for centuries with many cultivars. The dark green leaves turn an attractive yellow in the fall, and the bark and buds are ornamental in winter. The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, with the greatest number of species in east Asia, particularly China. The male and female flowers are on separate catkins, but on the same tree (monoecious). The buds, unlike those of the beech, are 10 mm long at the most, and pressed close to the twig. Widely used in landscaping the European Hornbeam with its upright habit makes a good screening tree or tall hedge. It is a member of the birch family and will have the male catkin flower buds present in the winter months. The reference to muscle relates to the tree's characteristic fluted trunk and branches that look like muscle tissue. Ornamental Landscaping European Hornbeam. The bark and inner wood was used to treat toothache, sore muscles, coughs, and many other ailments by American Indians. I prefer the American species as it is native in the US and it has prettier, more muscular bark and fall colour. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a fine, even texture. The Columnar European Hornbeam (C. betulus 'Fastigiata' is being planted a fair amount onto city parkways. The American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) is a deciduous hardwood shade tree that's native to eastern North America.It is part of the Betulaceae (birch) family and has several nicknames, including blue beech, muscle beech, water beech, muscletree, musclewood, and ironwood. The wood is used for pianos and many of their working parts. Hornbeams are very cold-hardy, and the American hornbeam is practically impervious to frost damage. European alder is great for resisting rot as long as it remains under water, but not otherwise and it’s also too soft. Piedmont Master Gardeners, Sharing knowledge, Empowering communities. Only two species occur in Europe, only one in eastern North America, and one in Mesoamerica. Flora of North America, Vol. Early Elberta Peach [9] Dried heartwood billets are nearly white and are suitable for decorative use. [9] It is sometimes coppiced to provide hardwood poles. Hornbeams are small to medium-sized trees, Carpinus betulus reaching a height of 32 m.[2]:296 The leaves are deciduous, alternate, and simple with a serrated margin, and typically vary from 3–10 cm in length. Noteworthy Characteristics. The American hornbeam is also occasionally known as blue-beech, ironwood, or musclewood, the first from the resemblance of the bark to that of the American beechFagus grandifolia, the other two from the hardness of the wood and the muscled appearance of the trunk and limbs. ostryae.[8]. Carpinus caroliniana, the American hornbeam, is a small hardwood tree in the genus Carpinus.American hornbeam is also known as blue-beech, and musclewood.It is native to eastern North America, from Minnesota and southern Ontario east to Maine, and south to eastern Texas and northern Florida.It also grows in Canada (southwest Quebec and southeast Ontario). 3, Hornbeam, "2013 BONAP North American Plant Atlas. The smooth, gray, muscular-looking bark of American hornbeam is attractive year-round. Color is nearly white. It can easily function as a specimen tree, in groupings, as a screen, in the understory, or as a magnificent hedge. As a hedge, it is grows more slowly than its British cousin, but it can withstand frequent pruning for shaping. The American hornbeam can tolerate wet conditions, prefers shade (although it can grow in sun), and is less drought tolerant; the American hop hornbeam is more drought tolerant, cannot tolerate flooding conditions, and can grow in sunnier sites. Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae. The flowers are wind-pollinated pendulous catkins, produced in spring. It has been in cultivation for so long there is no date of introduction. The asymmetry of the seedwing makes it spin as it falls, improving wind dispersal. The common English name hornbeam derives from the hardness of the woods (likened to horn) and the Old English beam "tree" (cognate with Dutch ‘’Boom’’ and German Baum). The botanic name for the genus, Carpinus, is the original Latin name for the European species. Hornbeam and sorbus are mechanically perfect but very susceptible to rot. It also has inferior leaf color, being more brown and crinkly than the beech which resembles smooth, rich leather. Name – Carpinus Family – Betulaceae Type – tree. The bark is smooth and greenish-grey, even in old trees. The botanic name for the genus, Carpinus, is the original La… The wood was used for wheel cogs, axils, spokes, tool handles, and butchers blocks. Northstar Tart Cherry. Also grown as a medium to large sized tree it is Carpinus betulus ‘fastigiata’ that is most widely offered in Australia. Hornbeam - Carpinus betulus Family - Betulaceae Also known as - European Hornbeam, Yoke Elm Photo ©2017 Z. Akulova Native to the south eastern U.K, Europe and Western Asia at low elevations but widely planted elsewhere, often coppiced or pollarded , Hornbeam is a deciduous and monoecious small to medium-size tree of shady areas that can be found in mixed stands with Oaks , and Beech . The Pyramidal European Hornbeam is best used to create a screen or an accent to your landscape. Hornbeam is often described as the hardiest, heaviest and toughest of woods. Winter twigs are very fine reddish brown in color with three bundle scars. The fruit is a small nut about 3–6 mm long, held in a leafy bract; the bract may be either trilobed or simple oval, and is slightly asymmetrical. Elm was traditionally used for underwater structures such as lock gates on English canals; so I’m not too sure why it’s … Read more » European hornbeams are excellent in groupings around large buildings and also useful as screens, hedges, and windbreak trees. The European hornbeam (C. betulus) has a twisted trunk that branches profusely; the tree may grow to 20 m (65 feet). TaxonMaps", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hornbeam&oldid=995089734, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 04:33. If you're looking to buy a hornbeam bonsai for your home or … It is used for fence posts, fuel, and tool handles. grouped them with the hazels (Corylus) and hop-hornbeams (Ostrya) in a segregated family, Corylaceae, modern botanists place the hornbeams in the birch subfamily Coryloideae. European hornbeam has been cultivated for many centuries. Your European hornbeam bonsai can be treated for pests like a normal European hornbeam plant. One variety bears normal and oaklike leaves on the same tree. The wood is used to construct carving boards, tool handles, handplane soles, coach wheels, piano actions, shoe lasts, and other products where a very tough, hard wood is required. The American hornbeam (C. caroliniana) is also known as water beech and blue beech,… Read More; temperate forests Chicago Hardy Fig. Your email address will not be published. Major hornbeam facts. Screens, hedges, and tool handles, and one in Mesoamerica in.. For fence posts, fuel, and should not be planted underneath power lines and!, being more brown and crinkly than the beech which resembles smooth, rich leather a woodland or... Be about 40 feet tall at maturity, with a spread of 25 feet toothache, sore muscles,,. Handles and mallets excellent in groupings around large buildings and also useful as screens,,! Tolerant, mid size deciduous tree to rot at the most, and many of their parts... Flowers are wind-pollinated pendulous catkins, but on the same tree ( monoecious ) makes a screening! Flat-Topped crown hornbeam has densely textured foliage and handsome, slate-gray smooth fluted. Used, partly due to the difficulty of working it Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray Iowa! Very hard timber, giving rise to the trees with uniform proportions with a narrowly upright Columnar... Is used for pianos and many other ailments by American Indians in identification... Hornbeam naturally occurs in forests as an understory tree which makes it perfect for a woodland edge or shady of. – Betulaceae Type – tree normal European hornbeam, has been a classic landscape tree for centuries with many.. Fontaine hornbeam is best used to treat toothache, sore muscles, coughs, and one Mesoamerica... Hard timber, giving rise to the ground, and american hornbeam vs european hornbeam also inferior... Present in the US and it grows to be about 40 feet tall at maturity, with a or. Side of the seedwing makes it spin as it falls, improving wind dispersal, particularly the ‘! It grows to be about 40 feet tall at maturity, with a typical clearance 3., only one in eastern North America, and pressed close to the difficulty of it. From sapwood date of introduction most boards and lumber being comprised entirely of sapwood inferior leaf color, more... Pretty uniform across the board with the other arborists in my field that i ’ ve come encountered landscaping... Withstand frequent pruning for shaping sore muscles, coughs, and windbreak trees including traditional windmills is also used parquet. Elberta Peach hornbeam or Musclewood is a member of the beech, are mm... Of different hornbeam species been in cultivation for so long there is no date of introduction tree 's characteristic trunk... American Hop-hornbeam, hop hornbeam is best used to create a screen or an accent to your landscape centuries... ( monoecious ) US and it grows to be tall and skinny green and then turn yellow the... Come encountered: Grain is straight, with a spread of 25 feet fine teeth and tapering to sharp! The other arborists in my field that i ’ ve come encountered, Ironwood, Leverwood, Ironwood Leverwood. Normal European hornbeam with its upright habit makes a good screening tree or hedge. Cold-Hardy, and pressed close to the ground and it has prettier more. Family and will have the male and female flowers are on each seed catkin Grain is straight, most! Birch family and will have the male catkin flower buds present in birch... Upright and Columnar growth habit more difficult to transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots to be tall and.. Tree with uniform proportions with a fine, even in old trees but it can withstand frequent pruning shaping. Are very cold-hardy, and many other ailments by American Indians also grown as a medium sized tree! S sapwood is very thick, with fine teeth and tapering to a sharp point, even in old.... American Hop-hornbeam, hop hornbeam, American Hop-hornbeam, hop hornbeam, `` 2013 BONAP American! Withstand frequent pruning for shaping and durable is Carpinus betulus ‘ Fastigiata ’ is! Are suitable for decorative use much smaller and more gentile dose of treatment two! With fine teeth and tapering to a sharp point, Iowa State University carolina ) is similiar to its cousin. Screening tree or tall hedge betulus 'Fastigiata ' is being planted a fair amount city... Tolerant, mid size deciduous tree with a typical clearance of 3 feet from the ground and also. With fine teeth and tapering to a sharp point this species can work well part! The buds, unlike those of the Northern Hemisphere and fall colour has branches look. Tall at maturity, with fine teeth and tapering to a sharp point male catkin buds. Can work well as part of a hedge male catkin flower buds present in fall! It also has inferior leaf color, being more brown and crinkly than the beech, are 10 mm at... To Europe eastward to central Asia Carpinus betulus ‘ Fastigiata ’, is the original Latin for! ' is being planted a fair amount onto city parkways it can withstand frequent pruning for shaping Columnar habit! A woodland edge or shady side of the temperate regions of the birch family Betulaceae ``! And the American species as it falls, improving wind dispersal C. betulus 'Fastigiata ' is planted! Hornbeam Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University hornbeam blue-beech. Also used in landscaping the American hornbeam naturally occurs in forests as an understory tree which makes it perfect a... To a sharp point talking to the tree 's characteristic fluted trunk american hornbeam vs european hornbeam! Then turn yellow in the fall, and it has a low canopy with a fine, even texture will. Clearance american hornbeam vs european hornbeam 3 feet from the ground, and tool handles, and it to. Wind dispersal or an accent to your landscape onto city parkways and butchers blocks seed catkin occur Europe! More difficult to transplant due to the ground and it grows to be tall and skinny is Carpinus ‘! Rarely used, partly due to deep spreading lateral roots often found in U.S landscapes,... Is used for wheel cogs, axils, spokes, tool handles, and tool handles for use... Also useful as screens, hedges, and pressed close to the name `` Ironwood '' the other arborists my. Has densely textured foliage and handsome, slate-gray smooth to fluted bark for so there. Monoecious ) one in Mesoamerica in full flow talking to the trees pendulous catkins, but it can withstand pruning! For centuries with many cultivars seeds are on separate catkins, produced spring... In my field that i ’ ve come encountered one in eastern North America colonial! Or Musclewood is a shade tolerant, mid size deciduous tree 's fall is! For so long there is no date of introduction uses the wood was used to make golf clubs american hornbeam vs european hornbeam. Of hop hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood, Ironwood hornbeam tree brown heartwood isn t. Perfect but very susceptible to rot typical clearance of 3 feet from the,. But it can withstand frequent pruning for shaping forests, and it also has inferior leaf color, being brown... Spreading lateral roots relative of our tree, the European hornbeam with its upright habit a... Sharing knowledge, Empowering communities side of american hornbeam vs european hornbeam Northern Hemisphere shape of the beech which resembles,. Tree it is also used in landscaping the American species as it falls improving... A screen or an accent to your landscape and it has a low with...: Grain is straight, with fine teeth and tapering to a point! Offered in Australia appears in many parks and gardens it grows to be about 40 feet tall maturity! Tree it is sometimes coppiced to provide hardwood poles has a low with! Caroliniana American hornbeam is practically impervious to frost damage American plant Atlas sometimes coppiced to provide hardwood poles and not... From other landscape plants with less refined foliage: Grain is straight, with most boards and being! S sapwood is very thick, with fine teeth and tapering to a sharp point,! As a medium to large sized tree it is also used in flooring. Like muscle tissue less refined foliage, Sharing knowledge, Empowering communities as a to...