Yet, they, along with bay grasses, actually are a diverse group that encompasses reeds and seaweeds.There are more than 3,500 species of graminoids in the world. It is common throughout California and grows at elevations to about 4900 feet (1500 m). Much of North America, especially the prairies of the Midwestern United States, was once prime habitat to vast swaths of native grasses, including switchgrass, indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans), eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)[3] and others. Uses. Scientific name is the name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). After extensive evaluations of many plant species in multiple locations, switchgrass was selected in 19… Scientific Update – changing with the times during covid-19. Switchgrass is an early-maturing warm-season grass (late May–early June); growth usually begins in … 38 pages, "Samson et al., 2008": In regions where the. Switchgrass as a Bioenergy Crop, ATTRA - National Sustainable Agricultural Information Service, 2006. Every plant has different names in different languages. Their models also suggested that the “human toxicity potential” and “eco-toxicity potential” were substantially greater for the high ethanol fuels (i.e., E85 and ethanol) than for gasoline and E10. The commercialization of cellulosic ethanol is thus proving to be a significant challenge, despite noteworthy research efforts. A study published in 2015 has shown that switchgrass, when grown in a traditional monoculture, has an adverse impact on some wildlife. [45] Its root system, also, is excellent for holding soil in place, which helps prevent erosion from flooding and runoff. In some warm humid southern zones, such as Alabama, it has the ability to produce up to 25 oven-dry tonnes per hectare (ODT/ha). In Biofuels, Solar and Wind as Renewable Energy Systems: Benefits and Risks. For example, the full scientific name for the dove tree can be broken down like this: Davidia (the genus name) involucrata (the species name) Baill. Volume As European settlers began spreading west across the continent, the native grasses were plowed under and the land converted to crops such as corn, wheat, and oats. Science. Pink or dull-purple tinge, and turn golden brown with the foliage of the plant (Seed) Shapes. Cave-In-Rock originates from Cave-In-Rock, Illinois and is late maturing and suitable for both lowland and upland sites. Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) By far one of the most popular grasses, tall fescue is medium to dark green in color and fairly dense. [29] A recent study from the Great Plains [30] indicated that for ethanol production from switchgrass, this figure is 6.4, or alternatively, that 540% more energy was contained in the ethanol produced than was used in growing the switchgrass and converting it to liquid fuel. Volume 2. switchgrass. Guidelines for rotational stocking of selected forage crops", "Table 33b. Switchgrass, a tough ornamental grass that stands up to a variety of harsh conditions, adds both texture and color to a garden. Edited By Chittaranjan Kole, Chandrashekhar P. Joshi, David R. Shonnard. Environmental Research Letters. [19] Given that switchgrass contains approximately 18.8 GJ/ODT of biomass, the energy output-to-input ratio for the crop can be up to 20:1. Switchgrass has a deep fibrous root system – nearly as deep as the plant is tall. Scientific name: Panicum virgatum. Switchgrass in Spanish can be different from Switchgrass in English. It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock. There are several switchgrass varieties to choose from and its high tolerance for different planting sites makes ornamental switchgrass a great choice for any landscape. Research is also being undertaken to develop switchgrass as a pellet fuel because of lack of surplus wood residues in eastern Canada,[34] as a slowdown in the forest products industry in 2009 is now resulting in wood pellet shortages throughout Eastern North America. Projections in the early 1990s for commercialization of cellulosic ethanol by the year 2000[31] have not been met. [24] Switchgrass has the potential to produce up to 380 liters of ethanol per tonne harvested. It is an ornamental grass widely used in landscaping and gardens. Scientific Name: Panicum virgatum. Conservation districts in many parts of the United States use it to control erosion in grass waterways because of its ability to anchor soils while providing habitat for wildlife. Switchgrass plant clade, plant tribe and order fall under the scientific classification of … Despite its importance as a prominent bioenergy crop, a genome-wide comprehensive analysis of NB-LRR disease resistance genes has yet … [52], Switchgrass is well known among wildlife conservationists as good forage and habitat for upland game bird species, such as pheasant, quail, grouse, and wild turkey, and song birds, with its plentiful small seeds and tall cover. The common name is widely used everywhere. This should allow for a second cutting in mid-August, leaving enough regrowth to survive the winter. Switchgrass uses C4 carbon fixation, giving it an advantage in conditions of drought and high temperature. Switchgrass should be harvested no more than twice per year and may generally be expected to produce 12 to ≥20 mg/ha/year across its usual range of distribution. It is a major component of the Tallgrass Prairie ecosystem. For cattle, however, it can be fed as hay, or grazed. 2007. Scientific Name: Panicum virgatum Seeding Rate: 5 lbs. [35] Research has found switchgrass, when pelletized and used as a solid biofuel, is a good candidate for displacing fossil fuels. 1-13. For those producers who have switchgrass stands on their farm, it is considered an environmental and aesthetic benefit due to the abundance of wildlife attracted by the switchgrass stands. Longevity: Perennial. However, there remain commercialization barriers to the development of cellulosic ethanol technology. Chemical weed control can be used in the fall prior to establishment, or before or after planting. Top 10 Animals that Hibernate (Excluding Bears) We all know that bears hibernate, but do other animals? For example, switchgrass can be pressed into fuel pellets that are subsequently burned in pellet stoves used to heat homes (which typically burn corn or wood pellets). Some of the most common cool-season grasses include the following in this grass names list. Establishing and Managing Switchgrass as an Energy Crop, Forage and Grazinglands, 2008. While switchgrass produces excellent forage and hay for most livestock, it should not be used for horses as it may have a phototoxic reaction. [19] As a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy, switchgrass pellets were found to be an effective means to use farmland to mitigate greenhouse gases on the order of 7.6-13 tonnes of CO2 per hectare. Together, these two names are referred to as a binomial. Disturbance such as periodic mowing, burning, or disking is required to optimize the stand's utility for encouraging biodiversity. It develops over time, according to use, look, and lore. Common Name (s): Switchgrass, Panicum,Switchgrass. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Above: Screenshot of answer five, with text reading “Correct! These widely adapted tallgrass species once occupied millions of hectares. It is a major component of the Tallgrass Prairie ecosystem. Book Handbook of Bioenergy Crop Plants. [40] Life cycle analysis was used to make this assessment. In fact, at the heart of this way of assigning scientific names to plants is a simple two-word formula, whereby the first word is the genus name and the second one the species name or "specific epithet." [1] Its flowers have a well-developed panicle, often up to 60 cm long, and it bears a good crop of seeds. NAME: River Oats OTHER COMMON NAMES: Northern Sea Oats / Spangle Grass / Indian Wood Oats / Broadleaf Uniola / Wild Oats / Inland Sea Oats SCIENTIFIC NAME: Uniola Latifolia COLOR: Green to red in fall and later to bronze PLANT SEEDS: Fall / Cold stratify 1-2 months PLANT HEIGHT: 24 - 36" PLANT SPACING: 24 - 36" BLOOM TIME: Late Summer Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is an upright prairie grass that produces feathery delicate flowers from July to September.It is common in Midwest prairies and is widespread in savannas of the Eastern United States. ABBREVIATION : PANVIR SYNONYMS : NO-ENTRY SCS PLANT CODE : PAVI2 PAVIC PAVIS COMMON NAMES : switchgrass prairie switchgrass tall panic grass TAXONOMY : The currently accepted scientific name of switchgrass is Panicum virgatum L. [37,38]. Learn more about the species we are working to protecting from becoming endangered or extinct. Common name of garden plants in different languages is different. Soil erosion, both from wind and water, is of great concern in regions where switchgrass grows. Once established, switchgrass can take up to three years to reach its full production potential. It is an ideal biomass energy source because of its moderate to high productivity, stand longevity, high moisture and nutrient use efficiency and adaptability to most agricultural regions in North America. Letter Z Animals Scientific Names. Scientific name definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. You can also combine the underlined terms to make one word. With Bruce Willis, Megan Fox, Machine Gun Kelly, Emile Hirsch. The reductions in global warming potential by using E10 and E85 were 5 and 65%, respectively. Switchgrass; Sand Dropseed; Plains Bristlegrass Page 11: Answer 5. Scientific name: Panicum virgatum Bloom Period: July/September Height: 3-5 feet Soil ... Switch Grass is a warm-season grass; it actively grows during the summer when soil temperatures are warm. Other common names for this weed include tumbleweedgrass and witches-hair. Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) Click on organism name to get more information. The main agronomic advantages of switchgrass as a bioenergy crop are its stand longevity, drought and flooding tolerance, relatively low herbicide and fertilizer input requirements, ease of management, hardiness in poor soil and climate conditions, and widespread adaptability in temperate climates. (. Although switchgrass spreads by rhizomes (and seed), loose clumps or patches are usually formed. The genus is the bigger grouping; to get more specific in identifying a plant within a genus, we refer to its specific epithet. Are you ready? It will spread slowly over time and make stunning vertical accents wherever it is planted. Scientific Names To learn about the common trees found in the Pacific Northwest, click a name.Each genus page also includes descriptions of the species that occur, within each genus, that are native to … Common Name of Switchgrass in other languages is an interesting information one should know. [13], After establishment, switchgrass management will depend on the goal of the seeding. Find more ways to say scientific name, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Additionally, switchgrass is grown as a drought-resistant ornamental grass in average to wet soils and in full sun to part shade. Switchgrass is the earliest maturing of the • Seedenergies: Technic Panicum virgatum, switchgrass Parcelles en France Technique (fr) [2] Unlike corn, switchgrass can grow on marginal lands and requires relatively modest levels of chemical fertilizers. It is an ornamental grass widely used in landscaping and gardens. Turfgrass Identification. Final report to Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa. The plant is a hybrid between two separate kinds of grass that are native to Europe and Asia. "Since that mention in the 2006, investment in switch grass has exploded, thanks in large part, experts say, to the President's speech. [12] Depending on the region, it can typically produce 1/4 to 1/3 of its yield potential in its first year and 2/3 of its potential in the year after seeding. 2006. Most bioenergy conversion processes for switchgrass, including those for cellulosic ethanol and pellet fuel production, can generally accept some alternative species in the harvested biomass. Whole plant herbaceous perennial C4 grass feedstocks are desirable biomass energy feedstocks, as they require fewer fossil energy inputs to grow and effectively capture solar energy because of their C4 photosynthetic system and perennial nature. [8], Switchgrass’ suitability for cultivation in the Gran Chaco is being studied by Argentina's Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA). This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. The most widely studied project to date has been the Chariton Valley Project in Iowa. Some additional pasture will be needed during April and May, as well as September through November, for an equivalent of 150 days. Springer Science, Berlin, Germany. If you want to know what a plant is called in Hindi, Greek, Portuguese or Polish, you are at the right place. Farrell, A.E. It is also found on prairie soils from the southeastern U.S., westward to the Rocky Mountains, as far south as Mexico, and northward into Canada. It has adapted regionally to widely differing soils, rainfall, and climate conditions over most of the US. Panicum virgatum var. Another word for scientific name. [20] This highly favorable ratio is attributable to its relatively high energy output per hectare and low energy inputs for production. They also factored in the transportation of the stored switchgrass to the ethanol plant where they assumed the distance was 20 km. It is the preferred larval host plant of Dargida rubripennis. Scientific name: Panicum virgatum L. Common name(s): Switchgrass: This weed is not known to be naturalised in Victoria: Habitat: Native to North & Central America. Ethanol Can Contribute to Energy and Environmental Goals. [7], In native prairies, switchgrass is historically found in association with several other important native tallgrass prairie plants, such as big bluestem, indiangrass, little bluestem, sideoats grama, eastern gamagrass, and various forbs (sunflowers, gayfeather, prairie clover, and prairie coneflower). [28] In contrast, corn ethanol yields about 1.28 units of energy per unit of energy input. Switchgrass produced 540% more renewable than nonrenewable energy consumed. Habit. Table S2. Increased attention is being placed on switchgrass management as an energy crop. More specific recommendations for fertilization are available regionally in North America. Switchgrass is a 3' to 7'+ tall native perennial bunch grass and is one of our most important tall warm season grasses. [15] It is also a larval host for the Delaware skipper and the Hobomok skipper.[16]. [44] Such low accumulation rates do not, as of 2009, allow for commercial use of switchgrass as a biosource. switchgrass. It can grow and even thrive in many weather conditions, lengths of growing seasons, soil types, and land conditions. Weeds should be mowed just above the height of the growing switchgrass. [54] The benefits to wildlife can be extended even in large-scale agriculture through the process of strip harvesting, as recommended by The Wildlife Society, which suggests that rather than harvesting an entire field at once, strip harvesting could be practiced so that the entire habitat is not removed, thereby protecting the wildlife inhabiting the switchgrass.[55]. A summary of switchgrass yields across 13 research trial sites in the United States found the top two cultivars in each trial to yield 9.4 to 22.9 t/ha, with an average yield of 14.6 ODT/ha. Panicum virgatum, commonly called switch grass, is a Missouri native ornamental grass which was an important component of the tallgrass prairie which once covered large areas of the State. It works best in moister soils and is especially good for biofuel production. switchgrass (Wobsqua grass, blackbent, tall prairiegrass, wild redtop, thatchgrass) Panicum virgatum L. click thumbnail to see a larger image. Switchgrass can be used as a feedstock for biomass energy production, as ground cover for soil conservation, and to control erosion, for forages and grazing, as game cover, and as feedstock for biodegradable plastics. It is also found on prairie soils from the southeastern U.S., westward to the Rocky Mountains, as far south as Mexico, and northward into Canada. Combustion studies have been undertaken and it appears to be well-suited as a commercial boiler fuel. However, foliar fungal pathogens, like switchgrass rust, have the potential to significantly reduce switchgrass biomass yield. Wang, M., Wu, M., & Huo, H. Life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission impacts of different corn ethanol plant types. [26] In contrast, corn ethanol yields about 400 liters per tonne.[27]. Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) and Relative Feed Value (RFV) Ranges for Various Forage Crops", "Planting and managing switchgrass for forage, wildlife, and conservation", "Observed effects of warm season perennial grass agriculture on resident mammal species", "Farmers' Motivations for Adoption of Switchgrass", Fifth National Symposium, New Crops and New Uses, Strength in Diversity, 10.2193/0091-7648(2006)34[1203:TBEIGE]2.0.CO;2, Switchgrass Production in Ontario: A Management Guide, Switchgrass for Bioheat in Canada (agriwebinar presentation), Establishing and Managing Switchgrass as an Energy Crop, Optimization of Switchgrass Management for Commercial Fuel Pellet Production, Management Guide for the Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Fuel in Southern Iowa, "Switchgrass: A Living Solar Battery." Cave-In Rock Switchgrass is a long-living, perennial warm-season grass that makes very good bedding and cover for wildlife. Hormone herbicides, such as 2,4-D, should be avoided as they are known to reduce development of switchgrass when applied early in the establishing year. Common Name; Scientific Name; Family Name; Contact . native perennial, reproducing by seed … Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies, in native grass pastures, and naturalized along roadsides. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico. Family: Poaceae. Considerable effort is being expended in developing switchgrass as a cellulosic ethanol crop in the USA. Switchgrass can be harvested with the same field equipment used for hay production, and it is well-suited to baling or bulk field harvesting. In an increasingly distributed and digital world, we believe Blockchain and AI is changing the way information is processed, shared, and stored across a range of industries. Switchgrass can be found in remnant prairies, along roadsides, pastures and as an ornamental plant in gardens. Scientific Name: Panicum virgatum. Scientific Name Panicum virgatum . Thus, the productive season in its northern habitat can be as short as three months, but in the southern reaches of its habitat the growing season may be as long as eight months, around the Gulf Coast area. Alternate Names. In 2014, a genetically altered form of the bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii was created which can cheaply and efficiently turn switchgrass into ethanol.[41][42]. An FBI agent and Florida State officer team up to investigate a string of unsolved murder cases. Packing or firming the soil both before and after seeding. Due to its height, switchgrass can form an effective wind erosion barrier. [3], Switchgrass is a versatile and adaptable plant. Common Name: switchgrass. Write the full scientific name by placing the two italicized terms in the proper order with a space between them. ", "What Happened to Bush Call for Switchgrass? Typical nitrogen (N) content of senescent material in the fall is 0.5% N. Fertilizer nitrogen applications of about 5 kg N/hectare (ha) applied for each tonne of biomass removed is a general guideline. DOI link for Switchgrass. In Eastern Canada, switchgrass is being used on a pilot scale as a feedstock for commercial heating applications. DOI link for Switchgrass. Life cycle assessment of switchgrass-derived ethanol as transport fuel. Switchgrass has been researched as a renewable bioenergy crop since the mid-1980s, because it is a native perennial warm season grass with the ability to produce moderate to high yields on marginal farmlands. In George W. Bush's 2006 State of the Union Address, he proposed using switchgrass for ethanol;[21][22][23] since then, over US$100 million has been invested into researching switchgrass as a potential biofuel source. Life Cycle. While switchgrass produces excellent forage and hay for most livestock, it should not be used for horses as it may have a phototoxic reaction. Depending on the variety and cultivar, some have foliage that changes color in the fall. Switchgrass is a 3' to 7'+ tall native perennial bunch grass and is one of our most important tall warm season grasses. In a novel application, US scientists have genetically modified switchgrass to enable it to produce polyhydroxybutyrate, which accumulates in beadlike granules within the plant's cells. [6], Switchgrass is a diverse species, with striking differences between plants. Utah Scientific has led the way in video routing technology for 40 years, and continues with the latest in IP video routing hardware and control panels. Historically, most switchgrass seedings have been managed for the Conservation Reserve Program in the US. 311. The common name of this plant in Spanish is switchgrass. Switchgrass, as noted above, can provide forage for one AU for 90 days from 0.45 acre (2.2 AU per acre). Leaves. Int J Life Cycle Assess. No single method of establishing switchgrass can be suggested for all situations. Stiltgrass is considered one of the most damaging invasive plant species in the United States. (2010) conducted a study to analyze the environmental sustainability of using switchgrass plant material as a feedstock for ethanol production. Change Species Names to Honor Indigenous Peoples, Not Colonizers, Researchers Say. [43] In preliminary tests, the dry weight of a plants leaves were shown to comprise up to 3.7% of the polymer. Ecology and Spread. It is recommended that grazing begin when the plants are about 50 cm tall, and that grazing be discontinued when the plants have been eaten down to about 25 cm, and to rest the pasture 30 – 45 days between grazing periods. In our service area there is a need for a less ... Collector’s name, number of plants collected, location (parish, city, highway, and GPS Some members of Prairie Lands Bio-Products, Inc. in Iowa have even turned this benefit into a profitable business by leasing their switchgrass land for hunting during the proper seasons. virgatum. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season perennial grass that can be used as a second generation bioenergy crop. Click here to search books using title name,author name and keywords. Switchgrass . Kanlow originates from lowland sites near Wetumka, Oklahoma. The leaves are flat, 0.5 inches wide, and grow up to 30 inches long. [14], Historically, the major constraint to the development of grasses for thermal energy applications has been the difficulty associated with burning grasses in conventional boilers, as biomass quality problems can be of particular concern in combustion applications. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Switchgrass pellets were identified to have a 14.6:1 energy output-to-input ratio, which is substantially better than that for liquid biofuel options from farmland. Switchgrass ‘Alamo’ is a rhizomatous, warm-season bunchgrass that is native throughout most of the U.S. Grazing switchgrass calls for watchful management practices to ensure survival of the stand. Generation bioenergy crop, Luo, L, & van der Voe, (... Update – changing with the same field equipment used for PCR amplification of stand! ‘ Kanlow ’ is a major component of the U.S many weather conditions, both... 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