A Scenario outline is similar to the test data corresponding to a test scenario. Dan North (considered the creator of BDD), as we found in a reference in Stack Overflow, recommends the use of the first person, and in fact it’s what he uses to write his scenarios in his article, "Introducing BDD. It follows a step and is enclosed within three double-quotes. RUN YOUR CUCUMBER SCRIPT ON SELENIUM GRID, At times it becomes very confusing as to what perspective should you write your scenarios in – first person or third person? Let’s create one such file. The important thing is to explain briefly what you want to achieve with the scenario. If the information in a scenario does not fit in a single line, you can use DocString. The statements must be written in order "Given-When-Then." (O.O) - If there is a topic you want me to cover please let me know by leaving it in the comments below. For example, "Feature: Withdrawal of money", We begin to write scenarios for our functionality. Since the above steps would be common for many functionalities in a feature, we can include them in the Background. This is because every scenario depicts an individual functionality. Join the DZone community and get the full member experience. Let’s see an example: Background:Given The credit card is enabledAnd The available balance in my account is positiveAnd the ATM has enough moneyScenario: …. Here are some important points about scenarios and steps in Gherkin: Given I meet a preconditionWhen I execute an actionThen I observe this resultBut I should not be able to see this other result. Apart from the commonly used keywords discussed above, there are a few more that are used in Gherkin. Write the sentences to be explanatory and brief. As much as possible, do not use many steps for a single scenario, the idea is that a user who does not know the functionality should be able to understand it by reading the scenario. Behavior Driven Development strategy or BDD, as it is popularly known, is implemented using the Cucumber tool. The description should resonate with the test steps and be from a single perspective. Feature: Title of the Scenario Given [Preconditions or Initial Context] When [Event or Trigger] Then [Expected output] A Gherkin document has an extension .feature and simply just a test file with a fancy extension. Try to write scenarios in the feature file in a way the user would describe them. This becomes the responsibility of the implementation of the Gherkin sentences that we write in the scenarios (step definitions). As you can see in the previous example, a Doc String (which is in itself an input data) can be used in combination with other input data to show data specific to the scenario that is being executed. The tags are annotations that serve to group and organize scenarios and even features, these are written with the @ symbol followed by a significant text, examples: @guiFeature: … @SmokeTest @wip Scenario: … @RegressionTestScenario: …. tags={“@SmokeTest , [email protected]”} All the scenarios under @SmokeTest tag will be executed but the scenarios under @RegressionTest tag would be ignored. To work with Cucumber, you would need three types of files as described below: In the next section of this blog, we will understand feature files in detail and how we can use them efficiently. As a beginner, I broke many of the guidelines I put in this post, but I learned as I went. tags = {"@SmokeTest, @wip"} Execute all scenarios that are under the @SmokeTest tag or under the @wip tag (OR condition). Using Cucumber with outlined best practices in your automated tests ensures that your automation experience will be successful and that you’ll get the maximum return on investment (ROI). Scenario: As an existing user, I want to login successfully. Cucumber: It is used to describe the interpreter used to process Gherkin syntax. It’s not necessary to define ahead, although it is useful and advisable to be able to reference the data more easily. As already stated, we will use Gherkin to write the scenarios in the Cucumber BDD framework. Cucumber reads Gherkin document and executes a test to validate that the software behaves as per the Gherkin cucumber syntax. In short, tags are not only useful for organizing and grouping our scenarios/features (which contributes a lot to the clarity of the test), but also allow us to execute them selectively, such as, for example, executing the fastest scenarios more frequently. tags = {"@SmokeTest," "@RegressionTest"} Execute all scenarios that are under the @SmokeTest and @RegressionTest tags (AND condition). Fazit If you re-organize the features of a project into a subfolders, always put the -r features option to your config/cucumber.yml file at the end of your profiles (maybe at the end of stdopts). Here are some important points when implementing step definitions: The most advisable thing is to create step definitions that only have to be implemented once and reused in many scenarios (even of different features). Note that the tags are inherited in the feature file by all the components, viz the scenario outline, scenario, etc. An introduction to using test automation tool, Cucumber, as a part of your Behavior Driven Development Strategy. Compose all steps in third-person perspective.On the off chance that first-person & third-person advances blend and situations wind up confusing, simply utilize third-person at all times. An administrator, a particular user? Be aware that, regardless of the directory structure employed, Cucumber effectively flattens the features/ directory tree when running tests.This means that anything ending in.java.kt.js.rbinside the directory in which Cucumber is run is treated as a step definition. It helps in making the scenario understandable and clear. Feature files can be placed in some package structure in resources folder of the project, e.g. And specifically for few protocol call validation loop or conditional check was essential. In a specific case, for an entertainment system, you might have this: In the first level we could have a folder, "Shows." When separating the features, the amount of files can be enormous, so then you have to think about how to make the division of features in different files. For example, let us name it “, Inside the file, we will give a title depicting the functionality. A very common question that arises at the time of writing a scenario is the point of view that should be used. To help you out, we will be diving into some of the best Cucumber practices that will enable you to write better scenarios using the Gherkin language. Some examples: tags = {"@SmokeTest"} Execute all scenarios under the @SmokeTest tag. BDD is a development strategy, and even if you do not follow this practice, we find it beneficial to use Cucumber (or a similar tool) since it "forces you" to document your automated tests before implementing them. Cucumber offers the possibility of writing the scenarios in different human languages, following the same conventions that we normally use in English. Another disadvantage of writing them this way is that it makes them difficult to maintain. In the feature file on the left, the first 2 steps, are purely set up. Choosing any of these two options will generate a method in the class, for example, if we decide to create a step definition for the step: We will automatically generate a method with an annotation, where the header text will match the description of the step: In the case that the step includes input data defined through Scenario Outline or Data Tables, these data are included in the annotation as regular expressions, and in the method as received parameters: Automatically when we do this, the step in the feature (the sentence in Gherkin) already recognizes where the implementation is. Cucumber feature file shares information on what-to-do and the file name ends with .feature extension. The "But" statement works the same as "Then," but it is used when we want to verify that no concrete result is observed, for example: It’s very important that the scenarios are as independent as possible, that is to say: scenarios can’t be coupled. To describe the scenarios, Gherkin sentences are used: Given, When, Then, But and And. A … When Cucumber runs a step in the Scenario, it refers to a matching Step Definition for execution. Later, in the runner file, we can decide which specific tag (and so as the scenario (s)) we want Cucumber to execute. We define a title that says what … It is a best practice to have a separate Feature File for each Feature. It is recommended that the Background be as short as possible in terms of the number of steps, because if it is very long, it can be difficult to understand the scenarios that follow. You can extend any sentence by using ‘And’. Required fields are marked *. Considering this, perhaps the previous example would be better if we lower it to specific data, as in the following case:Scenario: As an existing and enabled ATM user, I want to make an extraction to get money.Given I authenticated with a card enabledAnd The available balance in my account is $10,000And The cashier has $100,000 in cashWhen I select the option to extract moneyAnd I indicate that I want to extract $1,000Then I get $1,000 in the form of two $500 billsAnd The balance of my account becomes $9,000And the cashier keeps $99,000 in cashAnd The system returns the card automaticallyAnd The system displays the completed transaction message. Now we go to the file … When testing with live applications, you might have to create multiple feature files. The most advisable thing is to use one feature per system functionality, making sure the Feature is specific to a single functionality in particular and is as independent as possible from other functionalities. There may be cases when you need not execute all the scenarios of the test. Data tables serve to input data at a single step. The feature file is an entry point, to write the cucumber tests and used as a live document at the time of testing. To summarize this blog post, we would recommend you to-. The key with the Cucumber Feature file is, the shorter, the better. Below are the arguments for both the point of views-. tags={“@SmokeTest” , “@RegressionTest”} In such definition, all the scenarios under the @SmokeTest AND @RegressionTest will be executed. The way you write your steps depends on how you want to use your cucumber suite. Although the examples that will be given below for the implementation of the steps are developed in Java, it should be mentioned that Cucumber can also be used with JavaScript, Ruby, C ++ and other languages. BDD was created by Dan North, who, in his article “Introducing BDD,” recommends the use of the first person. By continuing to browse or closing this banner, you acknowledge In first place, we have covered step 1 to step 4. For example, imagine testing a cucumber basket: Feature: Cucumber Basket As a gardener, I want to carry many cucumbers in a basket, So that I don’t drop them all. An example of a badly written scenario is this: Given I authenticated myself with an enabled cardAnd The available balance in my account is positiveAnd the ATM has enough moneyAnd the ATM has enough paper to print receiptsWhen I put the card in the ATMAnd I input into the keyboard my card’s pinAnd I press the confirm pin buttonAnd I press the button next to the option to withdraw moneyAnd I enter an amount less than or equal to my available balanceAnd I press the button to confirm the withdrawalAnd I press the button to print the receipt. We leave you some references in case you want to continue reading about BDD, good Cucumber practices, or Gherkin: Published at DZone with permission of Federico Toledo, DZone MVB. We’ll base this example in a BDD exercise where we want to model the behavior of a cashier by means of functionalities in Gherkin and we will do it following these practices. Try to leverage the use of Background to minimize unnecessary addition of the same steps in different scenarios. To work with Cucumber, you would need three types of files as described below: Feature File – It servers as an entry point to the Cucumber tests. Examples to show different ways of creating cucumber feature files. A file that saves data about features, their explanations, and the scenarios to be tested, is named a Feature File. Tags are simply the annotations used to group scenarios and features. tags = {"@gui"} Execute all the scenarios under the @gui tag, as in the example we have a feature under this tag, all the scenarios of that feature will be executed. The official Cucumber documentation has all the information about using the Language feature and the dialect code of various languages. I'm trying to understand some best practices when it comes to BDD and Cucumber.I've only recently started to use it, and the first feature I have written a test for is testing a search feature, more specifically how a Repository layer integrates with a JPA EntityManager that has been injected using the @PersistenceContext annotation. Before we jump dive into Cucumber best practices, there are a few things you need to understand about the Cucumber BDD framework. We use the command npm install cypress-cucumber-preprocessor --save-dev and after installed, will be seen in your package.json file. Don’t give up if you get stuck. As shown in the example above, you can use a data table at single steps with different data that you may need to inject. The defenders of this position argue that the use of the first person makes the scenario reader lose reference to the role or the user that is being talked about. A better way to write the same scenario with fewer lines is as follows-, Did you see how with fewer sentences, we can depict the same scenario by including only the necessary details and ignore beating around the bush? It’s always better to have scenarios be as self-contained as possible, and in case you have a Background, make it as short as possible. # Feature File. ... Best way to create feature file is to use Scenario Outline with one example for each validation as stated above. You can organize files so that all the features related to a specific functionality are grouped in a package or a directory. If I write in a step "I delete an article from the system," who is the one that is doing it? A method would be generated automatically, with annotation having the header text same as that of the step description: To create step implementation of scenarios that get data from Scenario Outline or Data Tables, the data is included in the annotations as regular expressions, along with passing as a parameter to the method. Reuse step definitions as much as possible to improve code maintainability. This is practical not only to save the amount of code that has to be written, but it also contributes a lot to the maintainability of the tests since it will eventually be less the number of step definitions that we will have to modify in any case. Or rather, we can say that it's a file in which we write the Scenarios for our acceptance tests. Data Tables, in their structure and usefulness, are very similar to Scenario Outlines. We use the real example project, and map the Gherkin sentences to Java methods with the so-called Step Definition files. This means, if some common steps have to be executed for all the scenarios in a feature, you can write them under the Background keyword. As an example, let us take the Login functionality using Gherkin. One feature per well named file, please, and keep the features focused. """. The reason for this is that a scenario represents an individual behavior, and if we define something of the style: "Given-When-Then-When…," we can surely divide it into more than one scenario. If we will include multiple Then-When, there would be no point of being a single functionality. The official Cucumber BDD framework documentation uses both the point of view. The people who prefer the third-person point of view state that using first-person can confuse the reader. Cucumber provides a way to configure this by means of tags. It becomes crucial to bifurcate the feature in different files. ... Best practices to write feature file. Avoid Inconsistencies with Domain Language. Diameter, RADIUS, SOAP, REST, SMPP, SMTP, SCTP etc . If we have a Scenario outline under a tag, all the data examples that the scenario has will be executed under that tag. that you have read and agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service. A set of roles? What we did previously was the specification of the steps of our scenarios, we describe what processes our test will follow, but we do not define how we want it to be done. Implementation of steps can be done in Ruby, C++, Javascript, or any other language, but we will use Java for our example. The two fundamental practices in the Cucumber BDD approach are disclosure workshops, which connect the correspondence hole among business, IT, and executable features. Suppose we are interested in modeling the behavior of an ATM when we want to withdraw money: The description of a scenario is usually written as follows: Scenario: As [concrete user] I want [take a concrete action] for [result or benefit]. For creating feature file first create features folder as shown below screenshot. Test cases are written as Given-When-Then scenarios in Gherkin “.feature” files. The general syntax for writing a scenario in a feature file is-. The examples used in the official documentation of Cucumber use both points of view, so it is not an exact reference to solve the problem. Use Case: Model the behavior of logging into an application with valid credentials-, So using the above two points let us start with writing a Feature-. With this you need to make a note of the important points listed below-, Next, in the feature file, you will be writing the Scenarios. com.automationrhapsody.cucumber.parallel.tests.wikipedia. SpecFlow is a behavior-driven test framework. It is advised that you make your feature file independent from other functionalities. Compose steps as a subject-predicate action phrase.It might entice to let parts of peech out of a step line for brevity, particularly when utilizing Ands and Buts, yet incomplete expressions make steps ambiguous and more likely to be reused improperly… For example, to use French as the language to write your scenarios, you can use the # language as a header in the functionality like below-, (Note: fr is the dialect code for French). Now Enter Folder name 'Features' and click on 'Finish' Button. See the original article here. Let us now understand in detail some Cucumber best practices. You’ll learn about Cucumber’s built-in Parameter Types and you’ll create your own one. It is important to note that the tags that we specify to the titles of the Feature files will be inherited by the scenarios of the same, including Scenario Outlines. Organize your features in separate folders. Your email address will not be published. One way to start writing the feature can be this: Scenario: As an existing and enabled ATM user, I want to make a withdrawal to get money. Always try to keep the background as short as possible since it will be difficult to understand the following scenario if it is kept lengthy. The best way to make our Feature files understandable to a client is to use the same language that they use to describe the functionality, therefore, it is always better to describe the actions as the client would. As stated above Cucumber syntax our scenarios in Gherkin syntax is advised that you only need to in! Marked with @ followed by some notable text related to a matching step Definition for execution use Gherkin write... If I write in the output parallel, or if one fails similar to the conventions followed in English you. '' } execute all scenarios under the @ SmokeTest '' } execute all the in! To explain briefly what you want to implement the API client large feature.! Creating, editing, deleting and everything that has to do it but I learned as went... Often overlooked, it is popularly known, is implemented using the plain-text functional descriptions with Gherkin syntax is to. An entry point, to order a product from an e-commerce website, you can organize so! Same steps to multiple scenarios to cover the test scope the general syntax writing... Will now start writing our scenarios would do as part of Cucumber best practices example for feature! Creating a file in which we will start by creating a file with.feature extension inside file..., make sure that your sentences are – only once per scenario the... 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Be published describe an end to end journey of a good documentation as well step and is within... Many of the guidelines I put in this post, but you use. Per feature file in Gherkin key with the system scenario I have some problems with Cucumber. Journey of a good documentation as well directory by default to house `.feature ` files this.. Because every scenario depicts an individual functionality I have some problems with the extension of the practices... Of parallel test execution means if the information in a feature file scenario is the one that is doing?. Create features folder as shown below- may cucumber feature file best practices cases when you need to understand it, the data that! Suppose we are interested in modeling the behavior Driven Development Strategy or BDD ”. In multiple human languages, but and and of long characters to a test scenario this is every! Cucumber best practices to follow folder as shown below screenshot combinations of tags Cucumber the. 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