In a recent study, when soil pH was adjusted to 6.5, 60 pounds per acre of P2O5, and 30 pounds per acre of K2O were applied to a Kentucky bluegrass pasture, yield of total digestible nutrients, carrying capacity, and beef production increased 50 percent over unfertilized pastures. Reduce the stocking density later in the grazing season as grass growth slows. We work with riders, owners and trainers and use the latest nutritional research and technology to produce feeds which will help you achieve optimum performance. Quality declines significantly as … Like many common U.S. turf grasses, this versatile, widely used grass is native to Europe and northern Asia. Pastures composed of Kentucky bluegrass mixed with legumes also have higher nutritional values than pure grass pastures (Table 2). It arrived on our shores with settlers during the colonial period, and it spread across the nation with the pioneers. In the fall, the lawn can be core-aerated every year or two to avoid compaction problems. However, bluegrass has thinner blades and produces a fine-textured turf. Generally, turf clippings contain 6-7% nitrogen, 0.5 to 1.0% phosphorous and 2-4% potassium; when returned to the lawn, they can account for a fourth of the lawn's fertilizer applications each year. After this establishment period, Kentucky bluegrass should require irrigation only weekly and only in hot weather. This grass species is slower to germinate than most cool season grasses, taking at 7 to 21 days. It is best adapted to the Glaciated Region, with its higher rainfall and quality soils. This can be accomplished with frost seeding by seeding into a field with a thin stand of existing plants or where the pasture was grazed "into the ground" the previous fall. Poa pratensis, commonly known as Kentucky bluegrass (or blue grass), smooth meadow-grass, or common meadow-grass, is a perennial species of grass native to practically all of Europe, North Asia and the mountains of Algeria and Morocco. If the soil test calls for large amounts of nutrients, they should be applied prior to seeding and incorporated into the seedbed. As the amount of clover in the pasture declines, the pasture can be grazed more closely so that the grass competes less with the clover. It will be most productive in areas of full sunlight, although it can stand some shade if it receives adequate moisture and nutrients. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Kentucky bluegrass can be "frost seeded" (in early spring when the soil is still honeycombed with frost) into existing pastures to thicken the stand. Delaying seeding until mid-morning when the soil has become slippery on the surface will result in poorer stand establishment. The various varieties of fescue used in lawns may present some identification challenges at first glance. Surface application of the recommended nutrients is equally beneficial if the Kentucky bluegrass is already established. The panicle is 1-1/2 to 5 inches long and 1 to 3 inches wide. Warm summer temperatures are the most limiting environmental factor to Kentucky bluegrass production. The soil must be well drained and medium in texture—Kentucky bluegrass cannot tolerate compacted clay. Kentucky Bluegrass Production By John D. Holman and Donn Thill INTRODUCTION The production of Kentucky bluegrass in northern Idaho began during the 1950’s with approximately 10,000 acres and has since grown to 70,000 Tall-growing grasses such as orchardgrass, timothy, smooth bromegrass, or tall fescue also may be included in a pasture seeding mixture with Kentucky bluegrass where hay or silage harvests will be made each year before grazing begins. However, those in other parts of eastern Kansas who are fortunate enough to have loam soil should be able to grow Kentucky bluegrass, as well. The relative nutritive value of Kentucky bluegrass, timothy, brome grass, orchard grass, and alfalfa. This characteristic makes it more tolerant of overgrazing than most other cool-season grasses. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Its growth slows during the warm summer months. A bluegrass plant ranges from 18 to 24 inches in height and is characterized by slender, upright stems. Why do we need this? This ability makes Kentucky bluegrass an ideal species for permanent pastures that are continuously grazed. It has been used for lawns, athletic fields, golf course Kentucky bluegrass has a large proportion of its leaves close to the soil surface and below the grazing height in managed pastures. The waving branches bear spikelets on their ends. In pasture mixtures, bluegrass is generally seeded with other grasses, and clovers. Kentucky bluegrass is not a native of the United States, but rather Europe, northern Asia, and some of the mountainous areas of Algeria and Morocco. And another that is mainly annual ryegrass with some radishes. It is an important winter forage grass for these animals in the west. Palatability/Nutritional Value: In the vegetative stage, Kentucky bluegrass has 12% protein and a digestibility (Total Digestible Nutrient) composition of 67%. Kentucky Bluegrass, Poa pratensis L. Tom Cook Oregon State University Introduction: Kentucky bluegrass has long been the most important cool season grass planted as turf. Digestibilities of dry matter and Copyright © 2013–2020 All rights reserved. View our privacy policy. As growth of Kentucky bluegrass declines in midsummer, livestock production on these pastures also is reduced, particularly during a dry growing season. Highly desired for its strong rhizomatous growth habit and unmistakable turf quality, Kentucky bluegrass is an extremely varied species. Press wheels or cultipacking used in conjunction with or after band seeding will improve the seed-soil contact and the chances of obtaining a good stand. Fescue Species summer, which decreases its forage value (Hockensmith et al. Kentucky bluegrass is susceptible to many of the same diseases as other cool-season forage grasses. Thank you! About Bluegrass Horse Feeds Committed to quality for over 170 years Bluegrass Horse Feeds was developed in 1998 at our mills in Eglish, Co Tyrone, where we manufacture a premium range of horse feed. For more information, please read our affiliate disclosure. Motivated by her experience growing up on a small farm near Wichita, Kansas, Michelle Lindsey started Homestead on the Range to supply Kansas country living enthusiasts with the innovative resources that they need to succeed and has now been keeping families informed and inspired for over five years. In pastures, grazing should begin when grass is about 5 inches tall and should not be grazed shorter than 1-1/2 to 2 inches. Despite its adaptation to this wide range of locations, bluegrass is actually rather specific in its preferences and will not truly thrive unless its needs are met. In … Forage and Grazinglands doi: 10.1094/FG‐2011‐1228‐01‐RS. Therefore, it is widely considered to be the most important lawn grass in the United States. SWIFT RW, COWAN RL, INGRAM RH, MADDY HK, BARRON GP, GROSE EC, … It also puts out rhizomes with amazing rapidity, and can spread through additional shoots known as tillers. Cited by View all 1 citing articles C:N Ratios of the Ramets and Mother Plants in Homogenous Plots The C:N ratio responded variably to the different treatments. Without this treatment, Kentucky bluegrass sod will, . The blades are flat or folded and feel soft to the touch. Only three forage-type Kentucky bluegrass varieties, 'Park', 'Troy', and 'Ginger', have been released in the past 45 years. For waterfowl and upland game birds, cover value is fair to good, depending upon species. Only three forage-type Kentucky bluegrass varieties, 'Park', 'Troy', and 'Ginger', have been released in the past 45 years. Michelle is the author of three country living books. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. Consequently, proper management during the early growing season is essential to maximize production potential. Turf-type varieties of Kentucky bluegrass need dethatching to remain productive and, in general, also require greater amounts of nitrogen fertilization and more extensive irrigation systems than forage-type varieties. As Kentucky bluegrass abundance increases, rangeland forage production shifts to an earlier … Additional nitrogen applications to pure Kentucky bluegrass stands should be made in late spring and early fall when the grass is growing rapidly. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Download PDF Save For Later Print Purchase Print. An additional application of 120 pounds of nitrogen per acre increased beef production by an additional 39 percent. Kentucky bluegrass prefers full sun, but will tolerate some shade. Kentucky bluegrass survival was 25% at -15oC and 20% at -20oC under low-N conditions. Seeding Kentucky bluegrass alone or in a mixture into a conventionally prepared seedbed or no-till seeding can also be an excellent method of establishment. The type and amount of maintenance bluegrass will require in this role will depend on the specific application. It provides excellent nutrition to horses, cattle, and sheep when the weather is cool, although its production is limited when the temperatures rise. It can be Average annual liveweight gains for the two systems were 446 and 536 lb/A. Although Kentucky bluegrass is found throughout the United States, it is most important agriculturally in the north central and northeastern regions and is best adapted to areas where the average daily temperature during July does not exceed 75°F. Late in the fall, the growth slows down and carbohydrates are stored in the abundance of new rhizomes to provide the nutrients needed to start all over again in the spring. The thick mat formed by Kentucky bluegrass is also excellent for erosion control purposes. Take a good look at the veins of the leaf for an interesting characteristic of Kentucky bluegrass—along the keel are two oddly transparent veins sometimes compared to racing stripes. It hosts May, June, and Japanese beetle grubs, while it provides forage to deer, turkey, and rabbits. Excessive defoliation often leads to shallow rooting, an open sod, and weed invasion. The tall-growing grasses typically thin over time and require reseeding, while the Kentucky bluegrass will persist indefinitely. By using this site you are agreeing to our terms of use. Kentucky bluegrass is found in most pastures in the northeastern United States because it tolerates close and frequent grazing better than other cool-season forage grasses. Managers should use high stocking densities early in the growing season when Kentucky bluegrass is most productive or should harvest excess growth as hay or silage. Plant into either a tilled or a no-till seedbed with adequate fertility and an optimal pH value, no deeper than 1/4 inch. In Kentucky tests over 5 years, beef steers gained 1.19 and 1.24 lb/day grazing bluegrass-ladino clover and bluegrass-alfalfa, respectively. Kentucky bluegrass-white clover pastures can be maintained indefinitely and their forage quality improved by applying lime and fertilizers according to soil test recommendations. Applying nitrogen to Kentucky bluegrass is not recommended if more than 30 percent of the pasture is a legume. Kentucky Bluegrass grows best on heavier soils with a pH above 6. Kentucky bluegrass also forms a tight sod, providing good pasture footing. Under normal environmental conditions in Pennsylvania, Kentucky bluegrass achieves nearly 70 percent of its annual forage production by early June. However, heavy stocking densities and continuous overgrazing (frequently the case in sheep and horse pastures), especially in midsummer when grass growth has slowed, will weaken Kentucky bluegrass and increase weed invasion. Grubs cause the most serious damage to Kentucky bluegrass pastures. During this second period of growth, the plant focuses on putting out more rhizomes, spreading itself to collect solar energy. These studies indicated that the nutritive value of brome–fescue hay was highest, followed by Kentucky bluegrass and sedge hays, and then oat straw. Greatest success is generally achieved when frost seeding is completed while the soil contains frost. Where the height of the grass is not an issue, it will only need to be mowed once a year to control weeds and keep the stand looking its best. In addition, grazing days per year and animal gains per acre are generally less on Kentucky bluegrass than on other cool-season, tall-growing grasses. Bluegrass We produce quality horse feeds so our customers can reach their potential in their chosen equine discipline. Controlling insects in Kentucky bluegrass pastures is most easily done through good grazing and fertility practices that maintain a healthy and vigorous grass stand. Calories in Kentucky Fried Chicken based on the calories, fat, protein, carbs and other nutrition information submitted for Kentucky Fried Chicken. All types of fescue have wider blades, thus producing a coarser turf. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) receives its name from its blue inflorescence, an open, branching, pyramid-shaped structure known as a panicle. COVER VALUE : Kentucky bluegrass provides good cover for small mammals and nongame birds. Another plot with 4 different clovers and chicory. Applying approximately 25 pounds per acre of nitrogen fertilizer to Kentucky bluegrass in early spring before green-up will stimulate growth and generally allow grazing to begin earlier. To ensure seed germination and seedling survival, water the lawn two or three times a day for the first couple of weeks. The lime and fertilizer needs of Kentucky bluegrass should be determined by soil testing. No content on this site may be reproduced in any way without prior written permission. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a short-to-medium height, cool-season, long-lived, highly palatable, perennial grass that has smooth, soft, green to dark green leaves with boat-shaped tips. Equine nutrition is a The slow establishment is primarily a result of slow (approximately 14 days) germination. Kentucky bluegrass productivity is increased substantially with proper pasture rotation and rest. 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