the stage at which no more of something can be accepted or added because there is already too much of it or too many of them. For more on these issues, I would recommend any of the articles referenced above, as well as discussion with supervisors, peers and colleagues. Health Res. volume 52, pages1893–1907(2018)Cite this article. 39(3/4), 294–308 (2005), Guest, G., Bunce, A., Johnson, L.: How many interviews are enough? 50(5), 642–649 (2015), Morse, J.M. (2016). Abstract Data saturation is often used as a criterion to evidence the quality of qualitative research. - 220.127.116.11. For example, property parameters detected in the timber industry include fiber saturation point, tensile strength, compressive strength, shear strength, and bending nature. Bowen 2008; O’Reilly and Parker 2013; Walker 2012; Morse 2015; Nelson 2016), aiming to extend the discussion around its conceptualization and use. If we move outside the grounded theory literature,Footnote 5 a fourth perspective becomes apparent in which there are references to data saturation, rather than theoretical saturation (e.g. Health 25(10), 1229–1245 (2010), Fusch, P.I., Ness, L.R. BMC Health Serv. The aim of this research was to explore whether a mixed methods design could contribute to the demonstration of saturation. Theoretical saturation signals the point in grounded theory studies at which theorizing the events under investigation is considered to have come to a sufficiently comprehensive end. GLASER & STRAUSS, 1967)—when the collection of new data does not shed any further light on the issue under … 32(6), 1403–1411 (2000), Jackson, M., Harrison, P., Swinburn, B., Lawrence, M.: Using a qualitative vignette to explore a complex public health issue. The main objective of this research was to determine the fibre saturation point of tropical wood. Research to Effect of saturation point of CBD in mct The numbers suggest, that it is several positive Experiencereports About saturation point of CBD in mct are. On the other hand the Product war too occasionally slightly negatively rated, but bottom line enjoys it is a enormous positive Reputation. Furthermore, if saturation is used in relation to negative case analysis in grounded theory (i.e. If a researcher remains faithful to the principles of qualitative research, sample size in the majority of qualitative studies should generally follow the concept of saturation (e.g. In this broader sense, saturation is often described as the point in data collection and analysis when new incoming data produces little or no new information to address the research question [ 4, 9, 11 – 13 ]. Life Outcomes 12, 54 (2014), Jackson, D., Daly, J., Davidson, P., Elliott, D.: Women recovering from first-time myocardial infarction (MI): a feminist qualitative study. While 30 in-depth interviews may seem high (especially for what is practical in a PhD study) others work with much less: a retrospective examination from a qualitative project by Guest et al. Soc. For example, in many phenomenographic studies, theoretical saturation is often reached after 15 to 30 participants, 8(4), 239–251 (2011), Starks, H., Trinidad, S.B. (2015: p. 154), for example, refer in their interview study of unintended pregnancy to being ‘confident of having achieved or at least closely approached thematic saturation.’ Nelson (2016), echoing Dey’s (1999) earlier view, argues that the term ‘saturation’ is itself problematic, as it intuitively lends itself to thinking in terms of a fixed point and a sense of ‘completeness’. He goes out of his way to look for groups that stretch diversity of data as far as possible, just to make certain that saturation is based on the widest possible range of data on the category. Health Res. Taking the fourth model of saturation identified earlier—the data saturation approach, as based on the notion of informational redundancy—it is clear that saturation can be identified at an early stage in the process, as from this perspective saturation is often seen as separate from, and preceding, formal analysis. Hennink et al. In interviews, when the researcher begins to hear the same comments again and again, data saturation is being reached… It is then time to stop collecting information and to start analysing what has been collected. 19(7), 985–995 (2009), Dey, I.: Grounding Grounded Theory: Guidelines for Qualitative Inquiry. 5(2), 147–149 (1995), Morse, J.M. Health Res. The saturation point of Hydrogen (H 2) gas in water at room temperature with no external force (pressure) is just under 1.6 mg/L or 1.6 parts per million (ppm). A desire to identify a specific point in time at which saturation is achieved seems often to give rise to a degree of uncertainty or equivocation. Download a free trial of the full software today! An experiment with data saturation and variability. : Sample size for qualitative research. (2014: p. 2), whilst espousing the principle of saturation, seem not fully to trust it: Saturation was monitored continuously throughout recruitment. We conclude that saturation should be operationalized in a way that is consistent with the research question(s), and the theoretical position and analytic framework adopted, but also that there should be some limit to its scope, so as not to risk saturation losing its coherence and potency if its conceptualization and uses are stretched too widely. 16, 169 (2015), Middlemiss, T., Lloyd-Williams, M., Laird, B.J., Fallon, M.T. Qual. : Symptom control trials in patients with advanced cancer: a qualitative study. ESRC National Centre for Research Methods, University of Southampton, Southampton (2012), Charmaz, K.: Grounded theory in the 21st century: applications for advancing social justice studies. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2014), Constantinou, C., Georgiou, M., Perdikogianni, M.: A comparative method for themes saturation (CoMeTS) in qualitative interviews. In: Baker, S.E., Edwards, R. 95–115. 2015; Long-Sutehall et al. Such a decision would seem, however, to relate to only a very preliminary stage of analysis and is likely to be driven by only a rudimentary sense of any emergent theory. On occasions, a reason for going beyond saturation appears to be ethical rather than methodological. : Methodological reflections on using pilot data from fracture patients to develop a qualitative study. Saturation’s apparent position as a ‘gold standard’ in assessing quality and its near universal application in qualitative research have been previously questioned (Guest et al. Some of the ways in which saturation has been operationalized, we would suggest, risk stretching or diluting its meaning to the point where it becomes too widely encompassing, thereby undermining its coherence and utility. In the third model, a reversal of the preceding logic is suggested, whereby data is collected so as to exemplify theory, at the level of lower-order codes or themes, rather than to develop or refine theory. Springer, New York (2015), O’Reilly, M., Parker, N.: ‘Unsatisfactory saturation’: a critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualitative research. Work Educ. Nursing Research Using Grounded Theory: Qualitative Designs and Methods in Nursing, pp. 37(8), 1173–1190 (2015). Qual. However, saturation (and therefore sample size) cannot be determined in advance, as it requires the review of study data. ‘Where and why?’—in what types of qualitative research, and for what purpose, should saturation be sought? 64(1), 223–235 (2007), Denny, E.: “I never know from one day to another how I will feel”: pain and uncertainty in women with endometriosis. write this specific piece of historical fiction, students have to engage in research and look for information on their chosen topic. Thus, in this model, the process of saturation is located principally at the level of data collection and is thereby separated from a fuller process of data analysis, and hence from theory. Accordingly, researchers who confidently propose saturation as a criterion for sampling at the outset of a study may become less certain as to how it should be operationalized once the study is in progress, and may therefore be reluctant to abide by it. Few authors draw an explicit distinction between data and theoretical saturation—among the exceptions are Bowen (2008), Sandelowski (2008), O’Reilly and Parker (2013), and Hennink et al. 2012; Lipworth et al. However, focusing on the emergence or otherwise of codes rather than on their theoretical development still points us towards saturation being achieved at a relatively early stage. (eds.) 139–169. Sci. It is interesting to look at their data tables, as they show succinctly the differences in sample size expected for different methodological approaches, such as case study, ethnography, narrative enquiry, or semi-structured interviews. J. Adv. We contend that there is a need not only for more transparent reporting, but also for a more thorough re-evaluation of how saturation is conceptualized and operationalized, including recognition of potential inconsistencies and contradictions in the use of the concept—this re-evaluation can be guided through attending to the four approaches we have identified and their implications for the purposes and uses of saturation. There was no significant difference in λ between the radial and the tangential directions for wood in the green state as the presence of free water in the cell diminished any effects arising from the anisotropy of the wood. (2017)—have attempted for formulate procedures whereby the specific number of participants required to achieve saturation is calculated in advance. These examples suggest a view that there is something of theoretical importance that is not captured by saturation, though it is unclear from the explanations given as to exactly what this is.Footnote 9. , qualitative
Despite reaching saturation, France et al. Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG, UK, Benjamin Saunders, Julius Sim, Tom Kingstone, Shula Baker, Bernadette Bartlam, Heather Burroughs & Clare Jinks, School of Health Sciences, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, EH21 6UU, UK, You can also search for this author in Similarly, Morse’s view of saturation seems to embody elements of both theoretical and data saturation. Qual Quant 52, 1893–1907 (2018). It is through consideration of such complexities in the context of specific approaches that saturation can have most value, enabling it to move away from its increasingly elevated yet uneasy position as a taken-for-granted convention of qualitative research. ‘When and how?’—at what stage in the research is saturation sought, and how can we assess if it has been achieved? Qual. Whilst consideration of the concept has led some commentators to argue for the need for qualitative researchers to provide a more thorough and transparent reporting of how they achieved saturation in their research, thus allowing readers to assess the validity of this claim (Bowen 2008; Francis et al. Operationalising data saturation for theory-driven interview studies. 2016). Med. Caring 12(4), 21–25 (2008), Francis, J.J., Johnston, M., Robertson, C., Glidewell, L., Entwhistle, V., Eccles, M.P., Grimshaw, J.M. In their original treatise on grounded theory, Glaser and Strauss (1967: p. 61) defined saturation in these terms: The criterion for judging when to stop sampling the different groups pertinent to a category is the category’s theoretical saturation. 18–20. Also writing from a grounded theory standpoint, Urquhart (2013: p. 194) defines saturation as: ‘the point in coding when you find that no new codes occur in the data. Quirkos is a simple, affordable tool for bringing your qualitative data to life. With regard to the second model identified, inductive thematic saturation, the fact that the focus is more explicitly on reaching saturation at the level of analysis—i.e. A key issue underlying the identification of saturation is the extent to which it is viewed as an event or a process. J. Adv. This perspective seems to be located firmly in the idea of theory development (as other parts of the quoted papers by Morse make clear), though a heavy emphasis is placed at the level of the data and the way in which the data exemplify theory, thereby seeming to evoke both data and theoretical saturation. Aldine, Chicago (1967), Grady, M.P. How to use saturation point in a sentence. The theoretical saturation subsequently sets the sample size, using theoretical sampling. ENG. Should You nevertheless Concerns regarding. In a focus group study of HIV perceptions in Ghana, Ganle (2016) used the notion of saturation to determine when each focus group discussion should terminate. Interestingly, empirical research on saturation began with efforts to determine when one might expect it to be reached. At this point, researchers are... Looks like you do not have access to this content. Looks you precise after finds you primarily Reviews, the the article unconditionally for well located. On the basis of such critiques, we have examined how saturation might be considered in relation to different theoretical and analytical approaches. It which makes it only on years provenen Effects builds. Saturation has attained widespread acceptance as a methodological principle in qualitative research. (2006) found that even though they conducted 60 interviews, they had saturation after 12, with most of the themes emergent after just 6. It is used to determine when there is adequate data from a study to develop a robust and valid understanding of the study phenomenon. (2010), Hennink et al. According to Starks and Trinidad (2007: p. 1375), however, theoretical saturation occurs ‘when the complete range of constructs that make up the theory is fully represented by the data’. It is commonly taken to indicate that, on the basis of the data that have been collected or analysed hitherto, further data collection and/or analysis are unnecessary. There is also more on sampling considerations in qualitative research in our previous blog post article. Extending previous literature that has highlighted the variability in the use of saturation (O’Reilly and Parker 2013; Walker 2012), we have scrutinized the different ways in which it has been operationalized in the research literature, identifying four models of saturation, each of which appears to make different core assumptions about what saturation is, and about what exactly is being saturated. The Results so that are on a case-by-case basis different, however Outweighs the good Assessment at a large part of the Tests. : Understanding the experiences and quality of life issues of Bahraini women with breast cancer. Saturation is a tool used for ensuring that adequate and quality data are collected to support the study. : Choose your method: a comparison of phenomenology, discourse analysis, and grounded theory. However, the use of saturation within methods has varied. Saturation means that no additional data are being found whereby the sociologist can develop properties of the category. Theoretical saturation is mainly used in grounded theory, and here saturation does not mean the point at which no new ideas emerge, ... ‘Researcher saturation’: the impact of data triangulation and intensive-research practices on the researcher and qualitative research process. Drawing on a number of examples in the literature, this paper seeks to explore some of these issues in relation to three core questions: ‘What?’—in what way(s) is saturation defined? Int. Mason (2010) looked at the average number of respondents in PhD thesis using on qualitative research. 875–876. Res. However, within this approach saturation is discussed as relating not only to codes developed inductively, but also to a priori codes, which echoes the third model: a priori thematic saturation. When used in a deductive approach to analysis, saturation serves to demonstrate the extent to which the data instantiate previously determined conceptual categories, whereas in more inductive approaches, and grounded theory in particular, it says something about the adequacy of sampling in relation to theory development (although we have seen that there are differing accounts of how specifically this should be achieved). Qual. Health Res. Sage, London (2003), Leininger, M.: Evaluation criteria and critique of qualitative research studies. Mason (2010) makes a similar argument, talking of the point at which there are ‘diminishing returns’ from further data-collection, and a number of researchers seem to take this more incremental approach to saturation. There are mounting instances of the same codes, but no new ones’, whilst Given (2016: p. 135) considers saturation as the point at which ‘additional data do not lead to any new emergent themes’. Considering the various types of research in which saturation might feature helps to clarify the purposes it is intended to fulfil. J. Adv. Res. In addition finds the entire Acquisition secret, without Statement and easily online instead of - in the process be all common Security policy (Ssl-Secrecy, Data confidentiality and so on) met. Sage, Thousand Oaks (2013), Vandecasteele, T., Debyser, B., Van Hecke, A., De Backer, T., Beeckman, D., Verhaeghe, S.: Nurses’ perceptions of transgressive behaviour in care relationships: a qualitative study. Saturation point definition: the point at which no more (people, things, ideas, etc) can be absorbed , accommodated ,... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Log In Dictionary 2003: p. 152). sources of data that may question or disconfirm aspects of the emergent theory) the logic becomes more tenuous—a statement about the unobserved based on the unobserved.Footnote 11 In either case, an uncertain predictive claim is made about the nature of data yet to be collected, and furthermore a claim that could only be tested if the decision to halt data collection were to be overturned. Notes 4, 508 (2011), Poletti, T., Balabanova, D., Ghazaryan, O., Kocharyan, H., Hakobyan, M., Arakelyan, K., Normand, C.: The desirability and feasibility of scaling up community health insurance in low-income settings—lessons from Armenia. Data saturation in sampling . An example of a research study that employed data saturation is found in the ‘Public Understanding of Science- Journal’ titled ‘Ethno-cultural community leaders’ views and perceptions on biobanks and population specific genomic Field Methods 18(1), 59–82 (2006), Hale, E.D., Treharne, G.J., Kitas, G.D.: Qualitative methodologies II: a brief guide to applying interpretative phenomenological analysis in musculoskeletal care. BMC Res. However, it is not a re-telling of history, as fictional elements can be added. Whilst several others have defined data saturation in a similar way (e.g. It should be noted that Birks and Mills (2015) also state that, as part of theoretical saturation, ‘Categories are clearly articulated with sharply defined and dimensionalized properties’, suggesting a somewhat broader view of saturation, in which the nature of emerging themes is important, rather than just the fact of their (non)emergence. Qual. Care 6(2), 86–96 (2007), Hancock, M.E., Amankwaa, L., Revell, M.A., Mueller, D.: Focus group data saturation: a new approach to data analysis. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0574-8, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0574-8, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Health Res. Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. 2000: p. 328) or ‘validate’ (Vandecasteele et al. (2003) seem to adopt a narrower, more individual-oriented perspective on data saturation, whereby saturation operates not at the level of the dataset as a whole, but in relation to the data provided by an individual participant; i.e. Commonly, saturation is referred to as a ‘point’ (e.g. This might, furthermore, lead us to ask whether there is the risk of saturation losing its coherence and utility if its potential conceptualization and uses are stretched too widely. However, there are no fixed sizes or standard tests that determine the required data for reaching saturation. J. Qual. They talk of logging each instance in which their focus group participants ‘discussed a theme’, with saturation then judged in relation to the number of times themes were discussed. 2015), Legard et al. 71(2), 370–380 (2015), Sandelowski, M.: Theoretical saturation. 2014: p. 2; Middlemiss et al. In: Ritchie, J., Lewis, J. Charmaz (2008, 2014) is critical of the extension of the notion of saturation beyond the context of grounded theory, and in particular of its extension into what we here refer to as data saturation. Expert Voices and Early Career Reflections on Sampling and Cases in Qualitative Research, pp. 68(4), 856–867 (2012), Legard, R., Keegan, J., Ward, K.: In-depth interviews. Saturation is frequently reported in qualitative research and may be the gold standard. Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers, pp. This too suggests a form of data saturation. However, it may also arise from the specific but somewhat uncertain logic that underlies saturation. Chronic Illn. Res. Hence, Dey (1999: p. 117) suggests the term ‘sufficiency’ in preference to ‘saturation’. In this model, saturation appears confined to the level of analysis; its implication for data collection is at best implicit. Finally, don’t forget that Quirkos can help you take an iterative approach to analysis and data collection, allowing you to quickly analyse your qualitative data as you go through your project, helping you visualise your path to saturation (if you so choose this approach!). Sci. Therefore, it was deemed that the data collection had reached a saturation point. It is commonly taken to indicate that, on the basis of the data that have been collected or analysed hitherto, further data collection and/or analysis are unnecessary. : Emergence vs Forcing: Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. saturation point of CBD in mct works with the human Body and neither against nor beside him, what Circumstances quasi excludes. Bloor and Wood (2006: p. 165) suggest that this tendency may stem from researchers feeling obliged to abide by sample sizes previously declared to funding bodies or ethics committees, whilst making claims to saturation in order to retain a sense of methodological credibility. Rather than the sufficient development of theory, it might be seen to indicate the ‘completeness’ of a biographical account. ; Kazley et al Quirkos, simple and affordable qualitative analysis software numerous pleasing studies About saturation.... New relevant information emerges with additional interviews declare to have in my to... 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In patients with advanced cancer: a critical exploration of psychological factors associated with spinal cord outcome., J., Ward, K.: Constructing Grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research non-occurrences of data, or! Generating theory using Grounded theory methodology: Strategies for qualitative research of new codes or theoretical saturation a! Sociologist can develop properties of the sample size, using theoretical sampling ’ simple affordable! Side Effects as well as cost effective apart from that, hear you sometimes too Men... The demonstration of saturation within methods has varied 1999 ), 1173–1190 ( )!, Fusch, P.I., Ness, L.R H., Trinidad, S.B in. It still possible to put rough numbers on how many interviews are enough required to achieve saturation is reported... 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