"[11] Currently, the CCP interprets the essence of Mao Zedong Thought as "Seeking truth from facts": "we must proceed from reality and put theory into practice in everything. [83] When Mao died, the Four Modernizations replaced class struggle as the Party's key objective. [28] By this time the CCP believed that China was in the primary stage of socialism, and therefore needed market relations to develop into a socialist society. [106] Another mark of continuity was that the two systems existed alongside each other. The executive bodies responsible for enacting laws are the State Council and the Standing Committee. [65] Unlike in parliamentary democracies Yang adds, people standing for elections for seats in people's congresses are state financed, thus giving every candidate an equal chance of getting elected. Thus, there is a huge ideological gap between the two systems. [38] Deng rejected the idea of reopening discussions on these subjects, and restated that reforms were essential for the CCP's future. [65], In a parliamentary democracy, the only way for a party to gain legitimacy is through elections, but due to the involvement of the bourgeoisie in the election process this legitimacy is not considered as genuine. [93] As Deng put it, "Some have said that not loving Socialism is not the same as not loving one's motherland. Xi Jinping Thought, the Chinese leader’s political philosophy, will soon be enshrined in the Constitution. [10], Mao Zedong Thought was conceived not only by CCP Chairman Mao Zedong, but by leading party officials. It was from this perspective that Marx said 'religion is the opium of the people'. "[97] After the failure of the revolutionary waves of the late-1910s, early 1920s, Lenin initiated the New Economic Policy, a series of policies which reintroduced capitalist economics in the country in a bid to develop socialism in Russia despite its backwardness. ... and socialist ideological education has yielded noteworthy results. The ideological basis of Indian constitution are:- Sovereign -- People's have right to decision making both internally and externally. In the last 85 years, our party has preserved and developed the progressive creative line. But the real operation of parliamentary democracies is completely grasped in the hands of the bourgeoisie." "Spiritual civilization" changed from a concept largely defined in socialist terminology under Deng into a vehicle for cultural nationalism under Jiang. Constitutional government has a market economy in which private property plays the predominant role, as the basis unlike the Chinese socialist market economy in which public ownership is the basis. Therefore the political revolution had to start by criticizing religion. (Art. [5], In 2006, at the 16th Plenary Session of the 16th Central Committee, the CCP leadership under General Secretary Hu Jintao expressed the need to create a new value system, referred to as the socialist core value system. [48] From then until its inclusion in the party's constitution at the 16th National Congress, the Three Represents became a constant theme for Jiang Zemin. [65] However, as Yang puts it;[65], Accordingly, our country's judicial organs, both trial organs and procuratorial organs, shall implement their powers independently according to the provisions of the law, but in terms of politics, ideology and organization, they must be under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. [42] However, at the 8th plenum of the 13th Central Committee, in 1991, the conservatives still held the upper hand within the party leadership. While Mao valued TCM's use as a low-cost way to improve rural health, Xi's preference is more based on cultural concerns. And there is not an abundance of products. [106], Deng did not believe that the fundamental difference between the capitalist mode of production and the socialist mode of production was central planning versus free markets. In creating, on the basis of ideological out- look, the political infrastructures and institutions that are the foundation of society, the righteous will assume the responsibility of governing and administering the country (in accordance with the Qur'anic verse "Verily My … [65] Yang shares Karl Marx's sentiment that liberal democracy "permits the oppressed to decide once every few years on which persons from the oppressive class will be represented in parliament to oppress them! [3] For instance, CCP general secretary Hu Jintao stated in 2012 that the Western world is "threatening to divide us" and that "the international culture of the West is strong while we are weak ... ideological and cultural fields are our main targets". [35], Between the time of the 13th National Congress and the Tiananmen Square incident and the ensuing crackdown, the line between right and left within the CCP became clearer. 0000001122 00000 n Constitutional law. [43] The tour proved that amongst the party's grassroots organizations, support for reform and opening up was firm. [65] Constitutional government has a market economy in which private property plays the predominant role, as the basis unlike the Chinese socialist market economy in which public ownership is the basis. The state advocates the civic virtues of love for the motherland, for the people, for labor, for science and for socialism. In 1986, to end this deficiency, the party came to the conclusion that the main contradiction in Chinese society was that between the backward productive forces and the advanced culture and ideology of China. [66] Constitutionalism is used as a tool by the ruling class (the bourgeoisie) to oppress the labouring masses (the proletariat). He said that "if we did, we would lose our foundation. [65] This relationship turns the political parties contesting the election to subservient tools of the bourgeoisie, and makes them govern in their interest. [14] However, party theorist Leng Rong disagrees, claiming that "President Jiang rid the Party of the ideological obstacles to different kinds of ownership [...] He did not give up Marxism or socialism. [82] The immediate post-1949 consensus was intimately linked with the idea of an "alternative modernity that transcended capitalist modernity and its Eurocentric assumptions of historical teleology and economist determinism. Feature # 8. Western countries have begun to reflect, and openly or secretively compare themselves against China's politics, economy and path. "[19] He further argues that such a view does not make sense in light of the different situations; Stalin emphasized production because of the Soviet Union's backwardness in all areas, while in China, the reforms were seen as one way to further develop the productive forces. ; sister projects: Wikipedia article, Wikidata item. (Art. [45] In a later Politburo meeting, members voted unanimously, in old communist fashion, to continue with reform and opening up. 0000001898 00000 n The contemporary institutional and political organization of the Republic of Cameroon derives its legitimacy and basis from Law N°96/06 of 18 th January 1996 on the revision of the Constitution of June 1972. The Basic Law itself provides the … [60] The instance that globalization is not fixed in nature, comes from Deng's insistence that China can pursue socialist modernization by incorporating elements of capitalism. [73] Material civilization was less contested, and it maintained close links to the Marxist view of economic development and the mode of productions, and the view that the material is the basis of the superstructure. [108] At the 15th National Congress, the party line was changed to "make market forces further play their role in resource allocation"; this line continued until the 3rd Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee),[108] when it was amended to "let market forces play a decisive role in resource allocation". The 1982 Constitution reflects Deng Xiaoping's determination to lay a lasting institutional foundation for domestic stability and modernization. [102] He criticized Mao's policies, particularly those after 1957, arguing that the CCP had "wasted twenty year. [113] Jiang Zemin, who had subscribed to the classical Marxist view that religion would wither away, was forced to change his mind when he learnt that religion in China was in fact growing, not decreasing. "At the first level, individuals should subordinate their personal interests to the interests of the state. [87] Therefore, having a correct understanding of Marxism and its development in China is crucial. In Marx's eyes, theology had become a bastion protecting the feudal ruling class in Germany. [104] Su, coauthoring with Feng Langrui, published an article in Economic Research (Chinese: Jingji yanju) in 1979 which called into question the Chinese socialist project by using Marxist methodology. [27] At the 13th National Congress, held in 1987, Zhao Ziyang, the CCP General Secretary, claimed that socialism with Chinese characteristics was the "integration of the fundamental tenets of Marxism with the modernization drive in China" and was "scientific socialism rooted in the realities of present-day China". [68] In short, the ideological campaigns tried to harmonize the relationship between the "two civilizations" in China – "material civilization and spiritual civilization". [67], Yang rejects the notion that constitutionalism "is a good word", and rejects the introduction of a term "socialist constitutional governance" (or another formulation of it) into Chinese ideological discourse. The Chinese Communist Party should have "absolute leadership over" China's. [9], Marxism–Leninism was the first official ideology of the Chinese Communist Party, and is a combination of classical Marxism (the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels) and Leninism (the thoughts of Vladimir Lenin). "[13] He further noted that Marxism in general "like any science, needs to change as time and circumstances advance. [87], Socialist patriotism is a concept invented by Vladimir Lenin, the informal leader of the Russian Bolshevik Party. There had been five major revisions by the National People's Congress (NPC) to the 1982 Constitution. [79] A proposed fourth civilization, social civilization, is linked to Hu's concept of Harmonious Socialist Society. [46] The concepts of "socialism with Chinese characteristics" and "the primary stage of socialism" were credited to him. 275 0 obj <> endobj [16] The stages were: ancient, based mostly on slavery; feudal; capitalist; socialist; and the communist mode of production. If you do not love socialist New China led by the Communist Party, what motherland do you love? [29] Two years earlier, Su had tried to internationalize the term "primary stage of socialism" by claiming that socialism contained three different production phases. [72] While the two terms, "material" and "spiritual" civilizations, were added to the party constitution at the 12th National Congress, the terms and their meanings were hotly debated. [114] In his concluding speech to the National Work Conference, Jiang asked the participants to find a way to make "socialism and religion adapt to each other". [65] Yang claims that the introduction of constitutionalism in any form would lead to the fall of the CCP, and even claims that socialist constitutionalism of the Soviet Union and the former socialist states was a main factor contributing to their downfall. The 1982 State Constitution provided a legal basis for the broad changes in China's social and economic institutions and significantly revised government structure. [20] This sentiment was echoed by Xue Muqiao; "practice shows that socialism is not necessarily based on a unified public ownership by the whole society". "[65] In the people's democratic system, the courts are both responsible to and supervised by the people's congresses. [64] However, for the further development of democracy and socialism, stability is needed. [83], The Maoist vision of modernity never "enjoyed entire hegemony" within the Party, and was always contested even at the height of Mao's power. This article aims to historically explore the political and ideological structure of the 1982 Constitution, both of which are multiple and can, therefore, be examined from various angles. [24] Su claimed that the "exploiting classes in China had been eliminated". [18] The classical goal of class struggle was declared by Deng to have been achieved in 1976. [30] Lastly, during the primary stage of socialism, planning would no longer be the primary means of organization of the economy. [95] This was not a small ideological issue, and had been in the heart of Marxist theoretical debate since the era of Vladimir Lenin. [88] It commits people to a non-nationalistic form of devotion to one's country. "[5] Adhering to the ideals and convictions of the party creates a link between the party and the masses, and will let the party "gain victories wherever" it goes. Why do people support us? The first constitution of the PRC took effect in 1954. [95] To take one example, in 1975 in "On the General Program of Work of the whole Party and the Whole Nation", Deng wrote;[95], Marxism holds that, within the contradictions between the productive forces and the relations of production, between practice and theory, and between the economic base and the superstructure, the productive forces ... and the economic base generally play the principal and decisive role ... Whoever denies this is not a materialist. The production forces are still not highly developed. [61] These contradictions are, according to party theorist Yue Yi from the Academy of Social Sciences, "that between private ownership of the means of production and socialised production. IDEOLOGICAL BASIS OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION AND INDIAN CONSTITUTION Constitutional government in ancient India The concepts of democracy, representative institutions, limitations on the arbitrary powers of the rulers, and rule of law were not alien to India in the hoary past.. 0000002930 00000 n [40] Deng began campaigning for his reformist policies in 1991, managing to get reformist articles printed in the People's Daily and Liberation Army during this period. [83] Ideological change led to factional strife, with many leading members of the party calling for a return to the classical socialist model of development. General Program. [112] The Marxist view that religion would decline as modern society emerged was proven false[clarification needed] with the rise of Falun Gong. "[66] Wang concludes his remarks on constitutionalism by claiming that "it is [...] necessary to sweep this [concept] into the rubbish bin of history". [95], This position, while being based on Marxism, was criticized by Maoists at the time of being the "revisionist theory of the productive forces. [59] His writings on the subject are used to justify the CCP's market reforms, since nations, according to Marx, have little choice in the matter of joining or not. Upon hearing this remark, Chen Yun, a cautious reformer and the second-most powerful politician in China, walked out of the meeting. [47], The term ″Three Represents″ was first used in 2000 by Jiang Zemin in a trip to Guangdong province. [81] There are a number of proponents in China for "ecological civilization", "an unsurprising development given the growing awareness and official recognition of China's pressing environmental issues. [1], In recent years, it has been argued, mainly by foreign commentators, that the CCP does not have an ideology, and that the party organization is pragmatic and interested only in what works. [66] While there are some who try to separate constitutionalism from the Western capitalist system, Wang argues, by doing so they are only safeguarding the rights of the bourgeoisie and their "universal values". Each constitution mirrored the ideological concerns and policy priorities of the time, although there was fundamentally no change in the government structure. (Art. %%EOF Adopting new development ideas based on science and for "innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development". ; sister projects: Wikipedia article, Wikidata item. The 3rd plenum of the 16th Central Committee conceived and formulated the ideology of Scientific Outlook on Development. The History of the People's Republic of China details the history of mainland China since 1 October 1949, when Mao Zedong proclaimed the People's Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen, after a near complete victory (1949) by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the Chinese Civil War. It can be amended only by a 2/3rd majority of votes in the National People’s Congress. By the 16th National Congress, the private sector was one of the most dominant forces in society, a constituency the party could not ignore if it wished to hold on to power. [19], Party theoretician and former Politburo member Hu Qiaomu in his thesis "Observe economic laws, speed up the Four Modernizations", published in 1978, argued that economic laws were objective, on par with natural laws. [65] In this system, Yang adds, the judiciary is under the control of the National People's Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee (SC). [17], While it has been argued by Westerners that the reforms introduced by the CCP under Deng were a rejection of the party's Marxist heritage and ideology, the CCP does not view it as such. [42], To reassert his economic agenda, in the spring of 1992, Deng made his famous southern tour of China, visiting Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Zhuhai, and spending the New Year in Shanghai. For 200 years, it has guided the evolution of governmental institutions and has provided the basis for political stability, individual freedom, economic growth and social progress. [98], The basic conflict between the Maoists and the Dengists was if China after 1949 had reached socialism or not, and what it would entail. Thought is the theoretical basis guiding the thinking of our nation". [37] The draft for the 8th Five-Year Plan, supervised by Premier Li Peng and Deputy Premier Yao Yilin, openly endorsed Chen Yun's economic view that planning should be primary, coupled with slow, balanced growth. [29] Further, some individuals should be allowed to become rich "before the objective of common prosperity [pure communism] is achieved". [47] Several capitalist techniques were introduced, while science and technology were to be the primary productive force. [32], Both Chen Yun and Deng supported the formation of a private market. trailer [118], I am a Marxist. [55], Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era consists of a 14-point basic policy, as follows:[56][57], — Xi Jinping, the CCP General Secretary, on the inevitability of socialism. [23] The resolution separated Mao the person from Mao Zedong Thought, claiming that Mao had contravened Mao Zedong Thought during his rule. Xi Jinping, foreground, at the Communist Party Congress in Beijing last fall. [64] The CCP still believes that the Party and country is led by the unity of the peasant and working classes. He stressed the importance of economic reform in China, and criticized those who were against further reform and opening up. The ideological conviction that China was still in the "initial stage of socialism"--a viewpoint reaffirmed at the Thirteenth National Party Congress in October and November 1987--provided a still broader ideological basis for continuing the development of the Deng's … Ideology of the Indian constitution. [66] Wang reiterates Mao's position of "constitutionalism, or what is called democratic politics, in fact is a politics that eats people. [82] The thought most linked to modernity in early China was Marxism, which analysed different social structures and relations. [...] However, the bourgeoisie cannot dispense with government, but must have it to hold the equally indispensable proletariat in check, it turns the power of government against the proletariat and keeps out of its way as far as possible. "[64] To be clear, democracy, in the CCP's understanding of the word, does not mean democracy as practiced in liberal democracies. [83] This in turn led to the adoption of alternative visions of modernity popular in the Western world. [65] Parties can only win, Yang claims, if they have enough money—when parties have money, they get it from the bourgeoisie. [17] According to Robert Lawrence Kuhn, a China analyst, "When I first heard this rationale, I thought it more comic than clever—a wry caricature of hack propagandists leaked by intellectual cynics. [38] After a discussion with General Wang Zhen, a supporter of Chen Yun, Deng stated he would propose the abolishment of the Central Advisory Commission (CAC). Bjmc i,jmc, unit-i, ideological basis of indian constitution and indian constitution 1. The Socialist rule of law concept is persisting in 'governing the country according to the law, a judiciary for the people, fairness and justice, serving the bigger picture, and the leadership of the Party. Alternately, certain party theorists argue that "capitalism is the early or first stage of communism. [65] Since it was established by the CCP, and given its role in the victory against the Kuomintang, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) is unique and should be treated as such. [19], Some have likened the CCP's position under Deng to that of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin when he introduced the planned economy. [65], Wang contends that the fixed class nature of constitutionalism is bourgeoisie. [69] "Material civilization" is synonymous with economic development; "spiritual civilization", often referred to as "socialist spiritual civilization", tries to spread good socialist morals in Chinese society. 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