Leaves are simple, alternate, 2–5 inches long, 1–2 inches wide, with upper surface bluish green, dull; undersurface paler, mostly smooth, or with hairs in vein axils only, margins with small sharp teeth. I do have a comment regarding Hornbeam vs. American hornbeam is a tall shrub or small tree, to 35 feet tall, with pendulous branches and a gray trunk that is fluted into musclelike ridges. Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae. Hop Hornbeam… I have learned my trees (in Illinois and North Carolina) and we refer to Hornbeam- Carpinus caroliniana as “Musclewood”, and Hop Hornbeam- Ostrya virginiana as “Ironwood”. Beech vs. Hornbeam Posted on 14th October 2013 (16th March 2018) by HedgesDirect The differences between two of the most popular hedging plants – Beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Hornbeam … The 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. The European hornbeam, particularly the cultivar ‘Fastigiata’, is often found in U.S landscapes. Carpinus betulus commonly called European hornbeam is a medium-sized, deciduous tree that grows 40-60’ (less frequently to 80’) tall with a pyramidal to oval-rounded crown. The American hornbeam (C. caroliniana) is also known as water beech and blue beech,… Read More; temperate forests The male and female flowers are on separate catkins, but on the same tree (monoecious). Widely used in landscaping the European Hornbeam with its upright habit makes a good screening tree or tall hedge. THERE ARE TWO members of the birch family that often go unnoticed in the understory of our forests: the Eastern hop hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) and American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana). Its relatively fine texture sets it apart from other landscape plants with less refined foliage. It has a low canopy with a typical clearance of 3 feet from the ground, and should not be planted underneath power lines. Carpinus caroliniana, the American hornbeam, is a small hardwood tree in the genus Carpinus.American hornbeam is also known as blue-beech, and musclewood.It is native to eastern North America, from Minnesota and southern Ontario east to Maine, and south to eastern Texas and northern Florida.It also grows in Canada (southwest Quebec and southeast Ontario). The buds, unlike those of the beech, are 10 mm long at the most, and pressed close to the twig. Ornamental Landscaping The American hornbeam is also occasionally known as blue-beech, ironwood, or musclewood, the first from the resemblance of the bark to that of the American beechFagus grandifolia, the other two from the hardness of the wood and the muscled appearance of the trunk and limbs. Though some botanists[according to whom?] The hard wood of American hornbeam is used to make golf clubs, tool handles and mallets. (image courtesy of Waheed Arshad).. Dr M is currently teaching British tree identification in his Vegetation Survey and Assessment module on the MSc Plant Diversity and MSc Species Identification and Survey Skills.. During a recent 2-hour walk in autumnal sunshine, the class collected twigs and leaves from no fewer than 27 genera. The American hornbeam can tolerate wet conditions, prefers shade (although it can grow in sun), and is less drought tolerant; the American hop hornbeam is more drought tolerant, cannot tolerate flooding conditions, and can grow in sunnier sites. Just remember, your tree is miniature and will need a much smaller and more gentile dose of treatment. European Hornbeam is a small to medium-size tree reaching heights of 15–25 metres (49–82 ft), rarely 30 metres (98 ft), and often has a fluted and crooked trunk. The wood is used to construct carving boards, tool handles, handplane soles, coach wheels, piano actions, shoe lasts, and other products where a very tough, hard wood is required. Height – 30 to 50 feet (10 to 15 meters) Exposure – full sun Soil – ordinary Foliage – deciduous Flowering – spring. The fruit is a small nut about 3–6 mm long, held in a leafy bract; the bract may be either trilobed or simple oval, and is slightly asymmetrical. The flowers are wind-pollinated pendulous catkins, produced in spring. Seems pretty uniform across the board with the other arborists in my field that I’ve come encountered. The European species is more adaptable to more landscapes than the American species. Your European hornbeam bonsai can be treated for pests like a normal European hornbeam plant. Flora of North America, Vol. It has branches that start very low to the ground and it grows to be tall and skinny. The European hornbeam (C. betulus) has a twisted trunk that branches profusely; the tree may grow to 20 m (65 feet). Chicago Hardy Fig. Color/Appearance: Hornbeam’s sapwood is very thick, with most boards and lumber being comprised entirely of sapwood. Early Elberta Peach When allowed to go where they will, American hornbeam grows into a variety of unconventional form, with twists and multiple trunks that can be quite lovely. If you're looking to buy a hornbeam bonsai for your home or … Pale yellowish brown heartwood isn’t clearly demarcated from sapwood. American hornbeam trees reach a height and width of 20 to 30 feet. I prefer the American species as it is native in the US and it has prettier, more muscular bark and fall colour. Hornbeam - Carpinus betulus Family - Betulaceae Also known as - European Hornbeam, Yoke Elm Photo ©2017 Z. Akulova Native to the south eastern U.K, Europe and Western Asia at low elevations but widely planted elsewhere, often coppiced or pollarded , Hornbeam is a deciduous and monoecious small to medium-size tree of shady areas that can be found in mixed stands with Oaks , and Beech . Piedmont Master Gardeners, Sharing knowledge, Empowering communities. One variety bears normal and oaklike leaves on the same tree. Typically, 10–30 seeds are on each seed catkin. [1][3][4][5][6] Carpinus betulus can be found in Europe, Turkey and Ukraine. TaxonMaps", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hornbeam&oldid=995089734, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from April 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2016, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 04:33. Although American hophornbeam's fall color is not sensational, it helps to "soften" the autumn landscape. ostryae.[8]. American Hornbeam Musclewood. [7], Hornbeams are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including autumnal moth, common emerald, feathered thorn, walnut sphinx, Svensson's copper underwing, and winter moth (recorded on European hornbeam) as well as the Coleophora case-bearers C. currucipennella and C. Elm was traditionally used for underwater structures such as lock gates on English canals; so I’m not too sure why it’s … Read more » European hornbeams are excellent in groupings around large buildings and also useful as screens, hedges, and windbreak trees. It is used for fence posts, fuel, and tool handles. If trained properly, this species can work well as part of a hedge. It is also used in parquet flooring and for making chess pieces. It can easily function as a specimen tree, in groupings, as a screen, in the understory, or as a magnificent hedge. The bark is smooth and greenish-grey, even in old trees. The common English name hornbeam derives from the hardness of the woods (likened to horn) and the Old English beam "tree" (cognate with Dutch ‘’Boom’’ and German Baum). Plant in the spring. Grain/Texture: Grain is straight, with a fine, even texture. A close relative of our tree, the European hornbeam, has been a classic landscape tree for centuries with many cultivars. The reference to muscle relates to the tree's characteristic fluted trunk and branches that look like muscle tissue. American Hornbeam naturally occurs in forests as an understory tree which makes it perfect for a woodland edge or shady side of the house. Hornbeam seeds, buds, and catkins are eaten by a number of songbirds as well as ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, wild turkey, and red a gray squirrels. American Hornbeam Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. It also has inferior leaf color, being more brown and crinkly than the beech which resembles smooth, rich leather. The American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) is a deciduous hardwood shade tree that's native to eastern North America.It is part of the Betulaceae (birch) family and has several nicknames, including blue beech, muscle beech, water beech, muscletree, musclewood, and ironwood. Major hornbeam facts. The wood can also be used as gear pegs in simple machines, including traditional windmills. The asymmetry of the seedwing makes it spin as it falls, improving wind dispersal. Only two species occur in Europe, only one in eastern North America, and one in Mesoamerica. Frans Fontaine Hornbeam is a dense deciduous tree with a narrowly upright and columnar growth habit. Your email address will not be published. Hornbeams yield a very hard timber, giving rise to the name "ironwood". It was introduced into North America during colonial times. The Pyramidal European Hornbeam is best used to create a screen or an accent to your landscape. The shape of the wing is important in the identification of different hornbeam species. Hornbeam is often described as the hardiest, heaviest and toughest of woods. grouped them with the hazels (Corylus) and hop-hornbeams (Ostrya) in a segregated family, Corylaceae, modern botanists place the hornbeams in the birch subfamily Coryloideae. Eastern hop hornbeam, American Hop-hornbeam, Hop hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood, Ironwood Hornbeam Tree . Hornbeam or blue-beech is a common tree in our forests, and it also appears in many parks and gardens. Color is nearly white. The wood is used for pianos and many of their working parts. Difficult to transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots. The wood was used to make wooden screws. 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